Racial slavery-History of slavery - Wikipedia

T his year marks years since enslaved Africans from Angola were forcibly brought to Jamestown, Virginia. This forced migration of black bodies on to what would become the United States of America represents the intertwined origin story of racial slavery and democracy. While Americans are quick to recognize Jamestown as the first episode of a continuing democratic experiment, the nation remains less willing to confront the way in which racial slavery proved crucial to the flourishing of American capitalism, democratic freedoms, and racial identity. The year laid out rough boundaries of citizenship, freedom, and democracy that are still being policed in our own time. Although we hardly remember this today, King often discussed how the imposing shadow of slavery impacted the civil rights struggle, perhaps most notably on 28 August , during the March on Washington.

Racial slavery

Racial slavery

Racial slavery

Racial slavery

Racial slavery

Archived from the original on 23 September Throughout Racial slavery transition the colonists continued to adopt more draconian and Racil slave codes in the Lowcountry than they had in the Chesapeake. T his year slvaery years since enslaved Africans from Angola were forcibly brought to Jamestown, Virginia. Lesbians videos sapphic subsequently renewed its slave-raiding, though on a smaller scale. Caught and returned to their owner, two had their servitude extended four years. Celtic tribes of Europe are recorded by various Roman sources as owning slaves. Racial slavery, Herman L.

All natural treaments for cold sores. BBC News Navigation

Politically, the " winner-take-all " structure that applies to 48 out of 50 states [] in the electoral college benefits white representation, as no state has voters of color as the majority of the electorate. In Systema Naturaehe labeled five [13] " varieties " [14] [15] of human species. Related Questions Asked in Slavery Who were the abolitionists and what were their racial attitudes? Follow think. Herrnsteinafter studying the Congressional Record and committee hearings related to the Immigration Act, concluded "the [intelligence] testing community did not generally view its findings as favoring restrictive immigration policies like those in the Act, and Congress took virtually Racial slavery notice of intelligence testing". As the civil rights movement Free naked women nudist dismantling of Jim Crow laws in the s and s deepened existing racial tensions in much of the Southern U. The comparison between the industrial North and the Confederacy illustrates this. Kinsella, Warren. The ideology of white supremacy based on the natural inferiority of Blacks, even allegations that Blacks were subhuman, strengthened Racial slavery the 18th century. One of Cuvier's pupils, Friedrich Tiedemannwas one of the first to make a scientific contestation of racism. The slumbering volcano: American slave ship revolts and the production of rebellious masculinity. In all, between 60, and 90, Americans were subjected to involuntary sterilization.

The history of slavery spans many cultures , nationalities , and religions from ancient times to the present day.

  • As the celebrations of the act that abolished the slave trade demonstrated, little attention is paid to much other than white saviours such as William Wilberforce.
  • Racial slavery is the process of enslaving a group of people based on the race that they belong to.
  • Part 2:
  • Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries people were kidnapped from the continent of Africa, forced into slavery in the American colonies and exploited to work as indentured servants and labor in the production of crops such as tobacco and cotton.
  • On June 19, activists and lawmakers gathered for a House Judiciary subcommittee hearing on the topic of reparations — whether the United States government should provide compensation to the descendants of slaves.
  • Scientific racism is a pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism racial discrimination , racial inferiority, or racial superiority.

Published by Oxford University Press. To learn more and to enroll, visit Slate. During the second half of the 17 th century, a terrible transformation, the enslavement of people solely on the basis of race, occurred in the lives of African Americans living in North America. These newcomers still numbered only a few thousand, but the bitter reversals they experienced—first subtle, then drastic—would shape the lives of all those who followed them, generation after generation.

Like most huge changes, the imposition of hereditary race slavery was gradual, taking hold by degrees over many decades. It proceeded slowly, in much the same way that winter follows fall. On any given day, in any given place, people can argue about local weather conditions. But eventually, it occurs all across the land.

Some people had experienced the first cold winds of enslavement well before ; others would escape the chilling blast well after The timing and nature of the change varied considerably from colony to colony, and even from family to family.

Gradually, the terrible transformation took on a momentum of its own, numbing and burdening everything in its path, like a disastrous winter storm. Unlike the changing seasons, however, the encroachment of racial slavery in the colonies of North America was certainly not a natural process.

It was highly unnatural—the work of powerful competitive governments and many thousands of human beings spread out across the Atlantic world.

Numerous factors combined to bring about this disastrous shift—human forces swirled together during the decades after , to create an enormously destructive storm.

By , hereditary enslavement based upon color, not upon religion, was a bitter reality in the older Catholic colonies of the New World. At first, they relied for justification upon the Mediterranean tradition that persons of a different religion, or persons captured in war, could be enslaved for life.

But hidden in this idea of slavery was the notion that persons who converted to Christianity should receive their freedom. Wealthy planters in the tropics, afraid that their cheap labor would be taken away from them because of this loophole, changed the reasoning behind their exploitation.

Even persons who could prove that they were not captured in war and that they accepted the Catholic faith still could not change their appearance, any more than a leopard can change its spots. So by making color the key factor behind enslavement, dark-skinned people brought from Africa to work in silver mines and on sugar plantations could be exploited for life. But this cruel and self-perpetuating system had not yet taken firm hold in North America. The same anti-Catholic propaganda that had led Sir Francis Drake to liberate Negro slaves in Central America in the s still prompted many colonists to believe that it was the Protestant mission to convert non-Europeans rather than enslave them.

Apart from such moral concerns, there were simple matters of cost and practicality. Workers subject to longer terms and coming from further away would require a larger initial investment. Consider a document from York County, Virginia, showing the market values for persons working for James Stone estimated in terms of pounds of tobacco :. Among all six, Susan had the lowest value.

She may have been less strong in the tobacco field, and as a woman she ran a greater risk of early death because of the dangers of childbirth. Hence John and Roger, the other English servants with three-year terms, commanded a higher value. Francis, whose term was twice as long, was not worth twice as much. Life expectancy was short for everyone in early Virginia, so he might not live to complete his term. The two black workers, Emaniell and Mingo, clearly had longer terms, perhaps even for life, and they also had the highest value.

If they each lived for another 20 years, they represented a bargain for Mr. Stone, but if they died young, perhaps even before they had fully learned the language, their value as workers proved far less. Enroll now in a different kind of summer school. Slate's Jamelle Bouie, Rebecca Onion, and our nation's leading academics and historians on our foundational institution. Included in your Slate Plus membership!

By , however, conditions were already beginning to change. For one thing, both the Dutch and the English had started using enslaved Africans to produce sugar in the Caribbean and the tropics. English experiments at Barbados and Providence Island showed that Protestant investors could easily overcome their moral scruples. Large profits could be made if foreign rivals could be held in check.

After agreeing to peace with Spain and giving up control of Northeast Brazil at midcentury, Dutch slave traders were actively looking for new markets. The English king also chartered a new colony in Carolina. He hoped it would be close enough to the Spanish in Florida and the Caribbean to challenge them in economic and military terms.

Many of the first English settlers in Carolina after came from Barbados. They brought enslaved Africans with them. They also brought the beginnings of a legal code and a social system that accepted race slavery. While new colonies with a greater acceptance of race slavery were being founded, the older colonies continued to grow.

Early in the 17 th century no tiny North American port could absorb several hundred workers arriving at one time on a large ship. Most Africans—such as those reaching Jamestown in —arrived several dozen at a time aboard small boats and privateers from the Caribbean.

Like Emaniell and Mingo on the farm of James Stone, they tended to mix with other unfree workers on small plantations. All of these servants, no matter what their origin, could hope to obtain their own land and the personal independence that goes with private property.

Anthony and Mary Johnson had also gained their own property in Northampton County before All except five were killed the following March, when local Indians struck back against the foreigners who were invading their land. Antonio was one of the lucky survivors.

He became increasingly English in his ways, eventually gaining his freedom and moving to the Eastern Shore, where he was known as Anthony Johnson. By the s, Anthony and Mary Johnson owned a farm of acres, and their married sons, John and Richard, farmed adjoining tracts of and acres respectively.

His widow Mary, in her will of , distributed a cow to each of her grandsons, including John Jr. Five years later, when John Jr. But within 30 years, John Jr.

If we knew their fate, it might tell us more about the terrible transformation that was going on around them. Gradually, it was becoming harder to obtain English labor in the mainland colonies.

Stiff penalties were imposed on sea captains who grabbed young people in England and sold them in the colonies as indentured servants.

Officials feared they would lose future English recruits to rival colonies if bad publicity filtered back to Europe, so they could not ignore this pressure, even when it undermined colonial profits. Nor could colonial planters turn instead to Indian labor. Native Americans captured in frontier wars continued to be enslaved, but each act of aggression by European colonists made future diplomacy with neighboring Indians more difficult.

Native American captives could easily escape into the familiar wilderness and return to their original tribe. Besides, their numbers were limited. African Americans, in contrast, were thousands of miles from their homeland, and their availability increased as the scope of the Atlantic slave trade expanded. More European countries competed to transport and exploit African labor; more West African leaders proved willing to engage in profitable trade with them; more New World planters had the money to purchase new workers from across the ocean.

It seemed as though every decade the ships became larger, the contacts more regular, the departures more frequent, the routes more familiar, the sales more efficient. As the size and efficiency of this brutal traffic increased, so did its rewards for European investors. Their ruthless competition pushed up the volume of transatlantic trade from Africa and drove down the relative cost of individual Africans in the New World at a time when the price of labor from Europe was rising.

As their profits increased, slave merchants and their captains continued to look for fresh markets. North America, on the fringe of this expanding and infamous Atlantic system, represented a likely target. As the small mainland colonies grew and their trade with one another and with England increased, their capacity to purchase large numbers of new laborers from overseas expanded. By the end of the century, Africans were arriving aboard large ships directly from Africa as well as on smaller boats from the West Indies.

All these large and gradual changes would still not have brought about the terrible transformation to race slavery, had it not been for several other crucial factors.

One ingredient was the mounting fear among colonial leaders regarding signs of discontent and cooperation among poor and unfree colonists of all sorts. Europeans and Africans worked together, intermarried, ran away together, and shared common resentments toward the well-to-do. Both groups were involved in a series of bitter strikes and servant uprisings among tobacco pickers in Virginia, culminating in an open rebellion in Greatly outnumbered by these armed workers, authorities were quick to sense the need to divide their labor force in order to control it.

Stressing cultural and ethnic divisions would be one way to do that. Lifetime servitude could be enforced only by removing the prospect that a person might gain freedom through Christian conversion. One approach was to outlaw this traditional route to freedom. As early as , a Maryland statute specified that Christian baptism could have no effect upon the legal status of a slave.

A more sweeping solution, however, involved removing religion altogether as a factor in determining servitude. Therefore, another fundamental key to the terrible transformation was the shift from changeable spiritual faith to unchangeable physical appearance as a measure of status.

And they gradually wrote this shift into their colonial laws. Within a generation, the English definition of who could be made a slave had shifted from someone who was not a Christian to someone who was not European in appearance. Indeed, the transition for self-interested Englishmen went further.

It was a small but momentous step from saying that black persons could be enslaved to saying that Negroes should be enslaved. As if this momentous shift were not enough, it was accompanied by another. Those who wrote the colonial laws not only moved to make slavery racial; they also made it hereditary. Under English common law, a child inherited the legal status of the father. But within seven years that option had been removed. In this special circumstance, the Assembly ignored all English precedents that children inherited the name and status of their father.

Now the terrible transformation was almost complete, with the colony of Virginia leading the way. An additional legal sleight of hand by the land-hungry Virginia gentry helped speed the process. By expanding this system to include Africans, self-interested planter-magistrates, who were rich enough to make the initial investment in enslaved workers, managed to obtain free land, as well as valuable labor, every time they purchased an African worker.

The Naturalization Act of made Asians ineligible for citizenship. But within seven years that option had been removed. The Immigration and Nationality Act of dramatically opened entry to the U. Throughout this period, racial tensions exploded, most violently in Chicago, and lynchings —mob-directed hangings, usually racially motivated—increased dramatically in the s. But fewer and fewer of them were being heard. First, racism is not part of some unchanging human nature.

Racial slavery

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Racial slavery. Related Questions

Beginning in the s, Southern Jewish communities were attacked by the Ku Klux Klan, which objected to Jewish immigration, and often used "The Jewish Banker" caricature in its propaganda. In , Leo Frank was lynched in Georgia after being convicted of rape and sentenced to death his punishment was commuted to life imprisonment. Events in Nazi Germany also attracted attention in the United States.

Jewish lobbying for intervention in Europe drew opposition from the isolationists , amongst whom was Father Charles Coughlin , a well known radio priest, who was known to be critical of Jews, believing that they were leading the United States into the war. A number of Jewish organizations, Christian organizations, Muslim organizations, and academics consider the Nation of Islam anti-Semitic.

Specifically, they claim that the Nation of Islam has engaged in revisionist and antisemitic interpretations of the Holocaust and exaggerates the role of Jews in the African slave trade. Although Jews are often considered white by mainstream American society, the relationship between Jews and the concept of whiteness remains complex, with some preferring not to identify as white.

Even if some Jews do believe that they're white, I think that they've been duped. I think that antisemitism has proven itself to be a powerful force in nearly every post of Western civilization where Christianity has a presence. And so even as a Christian, I say continually to my Jewish brothers and sisters: don't believe the hype about your full scale assimilation and integration into the mainstream. It only takes an event or two for a certain kind of anti-Jewish, antisemitic sensibility to surface in places that you would be surprised.

But I'm just thoroughly convinced that America is not the promised land for Jewish brothers and sisters. A lot of Jewish brothers say, "No, that's not true. We finally You said that in Weimar Germany. In recent years, some scholars have advanced the concept of New antisemitism , coming simultaneously from the far left , the far right , and radical Islam.

This tends to focus on opposition to the creation of a Jewish homeland in the State of Israel , and it also argues that the language of Anti-Zionism and criticism of Israel are both used to attack Jews more broadly.

According to this view, the proponents of the new concept believe that criticisms of Israel and Zionism are often disproportionate in degree and unique in kind, and they attribute this to antisemitism. Yehuda Bauer , Professor of Holocaust Studies at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem , has argued that the concept of a "new antisemitism" is essentially false since it is in fact an alternative form of the old antisemitism of previous decades, which he believes remains latent at times but recurs whenever it is triggered.

In his view, the current trigger is the Israel-Palestine situation ; if a compromise making ground in the Arab-Israeli peace process were achieved, he believes that antisemitism would once again decline but not disappear.

Chomsky has written in his work Necessary Illusions that the Anti-Defamation League casts any question of pro-Israeli policy as antisemitism, conflating and muddling issues as even Zionists receive the allegation. On October 27, , Robert D. Bowers opened fire in a synagogue in Pittsburgh with an ARstyle assault rifle while shouting anti-Semitic racial slurs.

This attack resulted in 11 dead and 6 wounded, leaving the assailant charged with 29 criminal counts, one of which was the obstruction of free exercise of religious beliefs. People of Middle Eastern and South Asian descent historically occupied an ambiguous racial status in the United States. Middle Eastern and South Asian immigrants were among those who sued in the late 19th and early 20th century to determine whether they were "white" immigrants as required by naturalization law.

By , courts had vindicated a "common-knowledge" standard, concluding that "scientific evidence", including the notion of a " Caucasian race " including Middle Easterners and many South Asians, was incoherent. Legal scholar John Tehranian argues that in reality this was a "performance-based" standard, relating to religious practices, education, intermarriage and a community's role in the United States. Racism against Arab Americans [] and racialized Islamophobia against Muslims have risen concomitantly with tensions between the American government and the Islamic world.

Arab Americans in particular were most demonized after the September 11 attacks, which led to hatred towards Middle Easterners living in the United States and elsewhere in the Western world. The case of Balbir Singh Sodhi , a Sikh who was murdered at a Phoenix gas station by a white supremacist for "looking like an Arab terrorist" because of the turban, a requirement of Sikhism , as well as that of Hindus being attacked for "being Muslims" have achieved prominence and criticism following the September 11 attacks.

Those of Middle Eastern descent who are in the United States military face racism from fellow soldiers. During his basic training, he was made to put cloth around his head and play the role of terrorist. His fellow soldiers had to take him down to the ground and draw guns on him. He was also called things such as " raghead ", "sand monkey", and "Zachari bin Laden". Racial profiling is a growing problem for Arab Americans following the September 11 attacks. Particularly in airports, Arab Americans are often subject to heightened security screening, pre-boarding searches and interrogations, and are sometimes denied passage "based solely on the belief that ethnicity or national origin increases passengers' flight risk.

Originally, passenger profiling was introduced in the s to identify potential hijackers that fit the "profile" of a person who is "likely to be a terrorist. The Department Of Justice released a statement in claiming that automated passenger screenings would not have a "disparate impact on any group of passengers.

At worst, they are simply a recipe for bigoted behavior. The November Iranian hostage crisis of the U. Even though such sentiments gradually declined after the release of the hostages at the start of , they sometimes flare up. In response, some Iranian immigrants to the U. Since the s and especially since the s, it has been argued, Hollywood's depiction of Iranians has gradually shown signs of vilifying Iranians.

Indian Americans have sometimes been mistaken in the United States for Arab or Muslim, and thus many of the same prejudices faced by Arab Americans have been experienced by Indian Americans also, regardless of actual religious or ethnic background. In the s, a gang known as the Dotbusters specifically targeted Indian Americans in Jersey City, New Jersey with violence and harassment. Numerous cases of religious stereotyping of American Hindus mainly of Indian origin have also been documented.

Since the September 11, attacks , there have been scattered incidents of Indian Americans becoming mistaken targets for hate crimes. In another example, a pizza deliverer was mugged and beaten in Massachusetts for "being Muslim " though the victim pleaded with the assailants that he was in fact a Hindu.

Klonoff found that racist discrimination is rampant in the lives of African Americans and is strongly related to psychiatric symptoms. These relationships were largely unaccounted for by other variables.

Demographic variables such as income and education were not related to experiences of racism. The results suggest that racism can be detrimental to African American's well being. It was found that perceived discrimination is correlated with depressive symptoms, especially for those less acculturated in the United States, like Mexican immigrants and migrants. Along the vein of somatic responses to discrimination, Kennedy et al. These data suggest that racism, measured as an ecologic characteristic, is associated with higher mortality in both blacks and whites.

Thomas LaVeist ; tested the hypothesis that segregation would aid in explaining race differences in infant mortality rates across cities. Analyzing large and midsized cities, LaVeist found support for the hypothesis. Since LaVeist's studies, segregation has received increased attention as a determinant of racial disparities in mortality. Mortality for male and female whites was not associated in either direction with residential segregation.

Researchers Sharon A. Jackson, Roger T. Anderson, Norman J. Johnson and Paul D. Sorlie found that, after adjustment for family income, mortality risk increased with increasing minority residential segregation among Blacks aged 25 to 44 years and non-Blacks aged 45 to 64 years.

These results suggest that minority residential segregation may influence mortality risk and underscore the traditional emphasis on the social underpinnings of disease and death. Stephanie A. Bond Huie writes that neighborhoods affect health and mortality outcomes primarily in an indirect fashion through environmental factors such as smoking, diet, exercise, stress, and access to health insurance and medical providers.

As early as , the Civil Rights Act provided a remedy for intentional race discrimination in employment by private employers and state and local public employers. The Civil Rights Act of applies to public employment or employment involving state action prohibiting deprivation of rights secured by the federal constitution or federal laws through action under color of law.

Title VII is the principal federal statute with regard to employment discrimination prohibiting unlawful employment discrimination by public and private employers, labor organizations, training programs and employment agencies based on race or color, religion, gender, and national origin. Title VII also prohibits retaliation against any person for opposing any practice forbidden by statute, or for making a charge, testifying, assisting, or participating in a proceeding under the statute.

Title VII also provides that race and color discrimination against every race and color is prohibited. Popular culture songs, theater for European American audiences in the 19th century created and perpetuated negative stereotypes of African Americans.

One key symbol of racism against African Americans was the use of blackface. Directly related to this was the institution of minstrelsy. Other stereotypes of African Americans included the fat, dark-skinned " mammy " and the irrational, hypersexual male "buck". In recent years increasing numbers of African-American activists have asserted that rap music videos commonly utilize scantily clothed African-American performers posing as thugs or pimps.

Julian Bond said that in a segregated society, people get their impressions of other groups from what they see in videos and what they hear in music. The protests resulted in the change of the television show name to We Got to Do Better. It is understood that representations of minorities in the media have the ability to reinforce or change stereotypes.

For example, in one study, a collection of white subjects were primed by a comedy skit either showing a stereotypical or neutral portrayal of African-American characters.

Participants were then required to read a vignette describing an incident of sexual violence, with the alleged offender either white or black, and assign a rating for perceived guilt. For those shown the stereotypical African-American character, there was a significantly higher guilt rating for black alleged offender in the subsequent vignette, in comparison to the other conditions.

While schemas have an overt societal consequence, the strong development of them have lasting effect on recipients. Overall, it is found that strong in-group attitudes are correlated with academic and economic success. In a study analyzing the interaction of assimilation and racial-ethnic schemas for Hispanic youth found that strong schematic identities for Hispanic youth undermined academic achievement. Additional stereotypes attributed to minorities continue to influence societal interactions.

For example, a Harvard Law Review article states that Asian-Americans are commonly viewed as submissive, as a combination of relative physical stature and Western comparisons of cultural attitudes. Furthermore, Asian-Americans are depicted as the model minority, unfair competitors, foreigners, and indistinguishable. These stereotypes can serve to dehumanize Asian-Americans and catalyze hostility and violence.

Formal discrimination against minorities has been present throughout American history. Leland T. Throughout the history of the United States race has been used by whites — a category that has also shifted through time — for legitimizing and creating difference and social, economic and political exclusion.

Within education, a survey of black students in sixteen majority white universities found that four of five African-Americans reported some form of racial discrimination. For example, in February , the University of Michigan enforced a new anti discrimination code following the distribution of fliers saying blacks "don't belong in classrooms, they belong hanging from trees". Other forms of reported discrimination were refusal to sit next to black in lecture, ignored input in class settings, and informal segregation.

While the penalties are imposed, the psychological consequences of formal discrimination can still manifest. Black students, for example, reported feelings of heightened isolation and suspicion. Furthermore, studies have shown that academic performance is stunted for black students with these feelings as a result of their campus race interactions.

Minority racism is sometimes considered controversial because of theories of power in society. Some theories of racism insist that racism can only exist in the context of social power to impose it upon others. For example, there has been ongoing violence between African American and Mexican American gangs, particularly in Southern California. This amounts to a standing authorization for Latino gang members to prove their mettle by terrorizing or even murdering any blacks sighted in a neighborhood claimed by a gang loyal to the Mexican Mafia.

There has also been noted conflict between recent immigrant groups and their established ethnic counterparts within the United States. Rapid growth in African and Caribbean immigrants has come into conflict with American blacks. Interaction and cooperation between black immigrants and American blacks are, ironically, debatable. One can argue that racial discrimination and cooperation is not ordinarily based on color of skin but more on shared common, cultural experiences, and beliefs.

In a manner that defines interpersonal discrimination in the United States, Darryl Brown of the Virginia Law Review states that while "our society has established a consensus against blatant, intentional racism and in decades since Brown v Board of Education has developed a sizeable set of legal remedies to address it", our legal system "ignores the possibility that 'race' is structural or interstitial, that it can be the root of injury even when not traceable to a specific intention or action" [].

Interpersonal discrimination is defined by its subtlety. Unlike formal discrimination, interpersonal discrimination is often not an overt or deliberate act of racism. For example, in an incident regarding a racial remark from a professor at Virginia Law, a rift was created by conflicting definitions of racism.

For the students that defended the professor's innocence, "racism was defined as an act of intentional maliciousness". Yet for African Americans, racism was broadened to a detrimental influence on "the substantive dynamics of the classroom".

As an effect, it is argued that the "daily repetition of subtle racism and subordination in the classroom and on campus can ultimately be, for African Americans, more productive of stress, anxiety and alienation than even blatant racists acts".

Moreover, the attention to these acts of discrimination diverts energy from academics, becoming a distraction that white students do not generally face.

Institutional racism is the theory that aspects of the structure, pervasive attitudes, and the established institutions in society disadvantage some racial groups, although not with an overtly discriminatory mechanism.

In his article, Peter Kaufman describes three instances in which institutional racism has contributed to current views of race. Access to United States citizenship was restricted by race, beginning with the Naturalization Act of which excluded "non-whites" from citizenship. By limiting immigration of non-Northern Europeans, according to the U. Department of State Office of the Historian the purpose of the act was "to preserve the ideal of American homogeneity".

Following the Immigration and Nationality Act of that ended a racist preference for white immigrants dating to the 18th century, [] white nationalism grew in the United States as the conservative movement developed in mainstream society. Huntington argues that it developed as a reaction to a perceived decline in the essence of American identity as European, Anglo-Protestant and English-speaking.

In conjunction with immigration reform in the late s seen with the Immigration Reform and Control Act of , there have been noted IRCA-related discriminatory behavior toward Hispanics within employment. As the measure made it unlawful to hire without authorization to work in the United States, avoidant treatment toward "foreign-appearing workers" increased to bypass the required record-keeping or risk of sanctions. Hitler and other Nazis praised America's system of institutional racism and they also believed that it was the model which should be followed in their Reich.

In particular, they believed that it was the model for the expansion of German territory into the territory of other nations and the elimination of their indigenous inhabitants, for the implementation of racist immigration laws which banned some races, and laws which denied full citizenship to blacks, which they also wanted to implement against Jews.

Large racial differentials in wealth remain in the United States: between whites and African Americans, the gap is a factor of twenty. Pre-existing disparities in wealth are exacerbated by tax policies that reward investment over waged income, subsidize mortgages, and subsidize private sector developers. There are major racial differences in access to health care and in the quality of health care provided. A study published in the American Journal of Public Health estimated that: "over , deaths could have been prevented from to if African Americans had received the same care as whites".

The key differences they cited were lack of insurance, inadequate insurance , poor service, and reluctance to seek care. Inequalities in health care may also reflect a systemic bias in the way medical procedures and treatments are prescribed for different ethnic groups. A University of Edinburgh Professor of Public Health, Raj Bhopal, writes that the history of racism in science and medicine shows that people and institutions behave according to the ethos of their times and warns of dangers to avoid in the future.

Racism she writes underlies unexplained inequities in health care, including treatment for heart disease, [] renal failure, [] bladder cancer, [] and pneumonia. In , Vermont organizers took a proactive stand against racism in their communities to defeat the biopolitical struggles faced on a daily basis.

The first and only universal health care law was passed in the state. It is argued that racial coding of concepts like crime and welfare has been used to strategically influence public political views. Racial coding is implicit; it incorporates racially primed language or imagery to allude to racial attitudes and thinking. For example, in the context of domestic policy, it is argued that Ronald Reagan implied linkages between concepts like "special interests" and "big government" with ill-perceived minority groups in the s, using the conditioned negativity toward the minority groups to discredit certain policies and programs during campaigns.

In a study analyzing how political ads prime attitudes, Valentino compares the voting responses of participants after being exposed to narration of a George W.

Bush advertisement paired with three different types of visuals with different embedded racial cues to create three conditions: neutral, race comparison, and undeserving blacks.

For example, as the narrator states "Democrats want to spend your tax dollars on wasteful government programs", the video shows an image of a black woman and child in an office setting. Valentino found that the undeserving blacks condition produced the largest primed effect in racialized policies, like opposition to affirmative action and welfare spending.

Racial disparities have been noted in all levels of the U. A July report by the Sentencing Project found that two-thirds of the people in the U. In the United States, most crimes that target victims on the basis of their race or ethnicity are considered hate crimes.

For federal law purposes, crimes targeting Hispanics because of their identity are considered hate crimes based on ethnicity. Leading forms of bias cited in the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting UCR Program, based on law enforcement agency filings are: anti-black, anti-Jewish, anti-white, anti-homosexual, and anti-Hispanic bias in that order in both and The New Century Foundation , a white nationalist organization founded by Jared Taylor , argues that blacks are more likely to commit hate crimes than whites, and it also argues that FBI figures inflate the number of hate crimes committed by whites by counting Hispanics as "white".

Existing research on crime has generally shown that racial or ethnic identity is not predictive of criminal behavior with data which has been controlled for social and economic factors. The first post-Jim Crow era hate crime to make sensational media attention was the murder of Vincent Chin , an Asian American of Chinese descent in He was attacked by two white assailants who were recently laid off from a Detroit area auto factory job and blamed the Japanese for their individual unemployment.

Chin was not of Japanese descent, but the assailants testified in the criminal court case that he "looked like a Jap", an ethnic slur that is used to describe Japanese and other Asians, and that they were angry enough to beat him to death. Continuing antisemitism in the United States has remained an issue as the Survey of American Attitudes Toward Jews in America , released by the Anti-Defamation League ADL , has found that the recent world economic recession increased some antisemitic viewpoints among Americans.

Reflecting on the lingering antisemitism of about one in five Americans, Abraham H. Foxman , ADL national director, has argued, "It is disturbing that with all of the strides we have made in becoming a more tolerant society, anti-Semitic beliefs continue to hold a vice-grip on a small but not insubstantial segment of the American public. An ABC News report in recounted that past ABC polls across several years have tended to find that "six percent have self-reported prejudice against Jews, 27 percent against Muslims, 25 percent against Arabs," and "one in 10 concedes harboring at least some such feelings" against Hispanic Americans.

In the same poll, more whites applied positive attributes to black Americans than negative ones, with blacks describing whites even more highly, but a significant minority of whites still called their fellow Americans "irresponsible", "lazy", or other such things. In , citizens gathered in the college community of Charlottesville , Virginia to attend the Unite the Right rally.

One woman was killed and dozens of other people were injured when a white supremacist drove his car into a group of counter-protesters. These dangerous fringe groups have no place in American public life and in the American debate and we condemn them in the strongest possible terms. There is a wide plethora of societal and political suggestions to alleviate the effects of continued discrimination in the United States.

For example, within universities, it has been suggested that a type of committee could respond to non-sanctionable behavior. It is also argued that there is a need for "white students and faculty to reformulate white-awareness toward a more secure identity that is not threatened by black cultural institutions and that can recognize the racial non-neutrality of the institutions whites dominate" Brown, Paired with this effort, Brown encourages the increase in minority faculty members, so the embedded white normative experience begins to fragment.

Within media, it is found that racial cues prime racial stereotypic thought. Thus, it is argued that "stereotype inconsistent cues might lead to more intentioned thought, thereby suppressing racial priming effects.

These results have been incorporated into training, for example, in some police departments. It has been argued that more evidence-based guidance from psychologists and sociologists is needed to learn what is effective in alleviating racism. Psychologist Stuart Vyse has argued that argument, ideas, and facts will not mend divisions but that there is evidence, such as that provided by the Robbers Cave Experiment , that seeking shared goals can help alleviate racism.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: African-American history. See also: Native American reservations. Further information: Native American boarding schools. Main article: Antiziganism. Main articles: Hispanophobia and Anti-Mexican sentiment. Main article: New antisemitism. See also: Anti-Arabism in the United States.

See also: Anti-Iranian sentiment. Main article: Interminority racism in the United States. See also: Immigration to the United States. See also: Wealth inequality in the United States. Main article: Race and health in the United States. Main article: Race and crime in the United States. Main article: Hate crime. United States portal. This reality is a direct legacy of the past, in particular slavery, segregation, the forcible resettlement of Native Americans, which was confronted by the United States during the civil rights movement.

However, whereas the country managed to establish equal treatment and non-discrimination in its laws, it has yet to redress the socioeconomic consequences of the historical legacy of racism. University of California, Los Angeles. Human Rights Network August ABC News. October 8, Retrieved December 20, March 10—13, Retrieved June 29, Retrieved January 2, Du Bois Review.

Retrieved January 1, Media Matters for America. November 12, The Atlantic. It is often said that Trump has no real ideology, which is not true—his ideology is white supremacy, in all its truculent and sanctimonious power. Washington Post. Retrieved April 3, The New York Times. Foreign Policy. Retrieved April 19, FBI Intelligence Bulletin.

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Retrieved January 28, The basis for this theory was that inside every native person, there was a repressed white person screaming to come to the surface.

Abuse both physical and psychological was common in these schools, and often their objective of 'compulsory whiteness' was not even ultimately achieved, with many of the Indians who later returned to the reservations afterwards not at all 'becoming white', but instead simply becoming heavy alcoholics and displaying signs of permanent psychological distress, and even mental illness.

Further, these individuals were often either totally unemployable or only marginally employed, as it was sensed by those around them that on the one hand, they had not successfully assimilated into 'white society', nor were they any longer acceptable to the Indian societies from which they had originated.

BBC News. Times of Israel. University of Oklahoma Press. Princeton University Press. Kempthorne Archived January 12, , at the Wayback Machine. See also, Cobell v. The University of Georgia Press. Andrew Jackson. History Book Club. IV, Treaties". Government Printing Office. Archived from the original on October 11, Retrieved October 14, November 19, Archived from the original on May 27, New York: Penguin.

Social Science History. Annual Review of Sociology. Emerson, Christian Smith Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Kraemer , U. New York Daily News. Retrieved July 29, JHU Press. Retrieved October 20, Archived from the original on October 15, Associated Press. Retrieved August 23, Archived from the original PDF on July 4, Cutler, Edward L. Glaeser, Jacob L. Archived from the original PDF on November 30, The goal was not to relax lending restrictions but rather to get banks to apply the same criteria in the inner-city as in the suburbs.

Wall Street Journal. January 9, Retrieved April 30, Retrieved August 10, Retrieved August 2, September 19, Archived from the original on January 22, The Journal of Southern History. Retrieved June 27, International Business Times. Retrieved May 26, Here's Why". Retrieved March 5, Electoral College: Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved March 23, Sage [u. Congressional Research Service. Pew Research Center. November 5, Archived from the original on May 9, Retrieved April 21, President: National: Exit Poll".

January 26, Journal of Black Studies. Sage Publications, n. Racial Equity. Archived from the original PDF on December 21, New York Times. Al Jazeera. Retrieved August 24, Retrieved September 29, Howard Journal of Communications. Chinese American Forum. History Teacher. Google Docs. Retrieved December 7, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. January 1, South End Press. April 17, Oxford University Press. Indians in North America, nearly 90 percent of whom where Sikhs from the state of Punjab, were also racialized through colonial gendered discourses.

Retrieved May 8, Journal of Organizational Behavior. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Retrieved December 4, Bias Crimes and Incidents Synopsis.

Seattle: Seattle Police Department Memorandum, American Journal of Public Health. Accessed July 17, In addition to job postings, the article also surveys evidence relevant to several of Jensen's subsidiary arguments, including lawsuits involving NINA publications, NINA restrictions in housing solicitations, Irish-American responses to NINA advertisements, and the use of NINA advertisements in Confederate propaganda", and concludes per the abstract that "Jensen's thesis about the highly limited extent of NINA postings requires revision", and that "the earlier view of historians generally accepting the widespread reality of the NINA phenomenon is better supported by the currently available evidence.

July 7, Page Long Island Wins. Retrieved August 16, Los Angeles Times. February 15, The Color of Race in America, — Good Housekeeping : Department of State Office of the Historian. Retrieved February 13, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. Historical Materialism. July 31, Retrieved July 30, The Cincinnati Enquirer , June 6, Accessed February 15, Archived from the original on March 1, Retrieved November 28, Public Radio International.

Gypsies: The Hidden Americans. Waveland Press. Meier; Margo Gutierrez Greenwood Publishing Group. Summer, , pp. Westminster: Desegregating California's Schools". December 22, February 16, December 21, Archived from the original on August 18, San Francisco: April Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, that section twenty-one hundred and sixty-nine of the Revised Statutes of the United States be, and the same is hereby, amended by adding thereto the following: And Mongolians, Malays, and other Asiatics, except Armenians, Assyrians, and Jews, shall not be naturalized in the United States.

Oney, , p. Time magazine. April 9, On Thanksgiving Eve , Simmons took 15 friends to the top of Stone Mountain, near Atlanta, built an altar on which he placed an American flag, a Bible and an unsheathed sword, set fire to a crude wooden cross, muttered a few incantations about a "practical fraternity among men," and declared himself Imperial Wizard of the Invisible Empire of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Coughlin," Church History , Vol.

June , pp. Anti-Defamation League. Archived from the original on April 26, Retrieved July 17, The Washington Post. His critics, including the Anti-Defamation League, contend that Muhammad's speeches contain antisemitic slurs. In his several taped speeches, Muhammad has named Israel among the countries in what he calls the genocidal AIDS conspiracy, but he does not single out Jews for criticism. The Village Voice. Archived from the original on August 23, Retrieved January 4, Archived from the original on July 5, Retrieved July 5, Chesler, Phyllis.

Doward, Jamie. Jews predict record level of hate attacks: Militant Islamic media accused of stirring up new wave of anti-semitism , The Guardian , August 8, Kinsella, Warren. After agreeing to peace with Spain and giving up control of Northeast Brazil at midcentury, Dutch slave traders were actively looking for new markets.

The English king also chartered a new colony in Carolina. He hoped it would be close enough to the Spanish in Florida and the Caribbean to challenge them in economic and military terms. Many of the first English settlers in Carolina after came from Barbados. They brought enslaved Africans with them. They also brought the beginnings of a legal code and a social system that accepted race slavery.

While new colonies with a greater acceptance of race slavery were being founded, the older colonies continued to grow. Early in the 17 th century no tiny North American port could absorb several hundred workers arriving at one time on a large ship. Most Africans—such as those reaching Jamestown in —arrived several dozen at a time aboard small boats and privateers from the Caribbean. Like Emaniell and Mingo on the farm of James Stone, they tended to mix with other unfree workers on small plantations.

All of these servants, no matter what their origin, could hope to obtain their own land and the personal independence that goes with private property. Anthony and Mary Johnson had also gained their own property in Northampton County before All except five were killed the following March, when local Indians struck back against the foreigners who were invading their land.

Antonio was one of the lucky survivors. He became increasingly English in his ways, eventually gaining his freedom and moving to the Eastern Shore, where he was known as Anthony Johnson. By the s, Anthony and Mary Johnson owned a farm of acres, and their married sons, John and Richard, farmed adjoining tracts of and acres respectively. His widow Mary, in her will of , distributed a cow to each of her grandsons, including John Jr.

Five years later, when John Jr. But within 30 years, John Jr. If we knew their fate, it might tell us more about the terrible transformation that was going on around them.

Gradually, it was becoming harder to obtain English labor in the mainland colonies. Stiff penalties were imposed on sea captains who grabbed young people in England and sold them in the colonies as indentured servants. Officials feared they would lose future English recruits to rival colonies if bad publicity filtered back to Europe, so they could not ignore this pressure, even when it undermined colonial profits. Nor could colonial planters turn instead to Indian labor. Native Americans captured in frontier wars continued to be enslaved, but each act of aggression by European colonists made future diplomacy with neighboring Indians more difficult.

Native American captives could easily escape into the familiar wilderness and return to their original tribe. Besides, their numbers were limited. African Americans, in contrast, were thousands of miles from their homeland, and their availability increased as the scope of the Atlantic slave trade expanded. More European countries competed to transport and exploit African labor; more West African leaders proved willing to engage in profitable trade with them; more New World planters had the money to purchase new workers from across the ocean.

It seemed as though every decade the ships became larger, the contacts more regular, the departures more frequent, the routes more familiar, the sales more efficient. As the size and efficiency of this brutal traffic increased, so did its rewards for European investors.

Their ruthless competition pushed up the volume of transatlantic trade from Africa and drove down the relative cost of individual Africans in the New World at a time when the price of labor from Europe was rising. As their profits increased, slave merchants and their captains continued to look for fresh markets. North America, on the fringe of this expanding and infamous Atlantic system, represented a likely target.

As the small mainland colonies grew and their trade with one another and with England increased, their capacity to purchase large numbers of new laborers from overseas expanded. By the end of the century, Africans were arriving aboard large ships directly from Africa as well as on smaller boats from the West Indies.

All these large and gradual changes would still not have brought about the terrible transformation to race slavery, had it not been for several other crucial factors. One ingredient was the mounting fear among colonial leaders regarding signs of discontent and cooperation among poor and unfree colonists of all sorts.

Europeans and Africans worked together, intermarried, ran away together, and shared common resentments toward the well-to-do. Both groups were involved in a series of bitter strikes and servant uprisings among tobacco pickers in Virginia, culminating in an open rebellion in Greatly outnumbered by these armed workers, authorities were quick to sense the need to divide their labor force in order to control it. Stressing cultural and ethnic divisions would be one way to do that.

Lifetime servitude could be enforced only by removing the prospect that a person might gain freedom through Christian conversion. One approach was to outlaw this traditional route to freedom. As early as , a Maryland statute specified that Christian baptism could have no effect upon the legal status of a slave.

A more sweeping solution, however, involved removing religion altogether as a factor in determining servitude. Therefore, another fundamental key to the terrible transformation was the shift from changeable spiritual faith to unchangeable physical appearance as a measure of status.

And they gradually wrote this shift into their colonial laws. Within a generation, the English definition of who could be made a slave had shifted from someone who was not a Christian to someone who was not European in appearance. Indeed, the transition for self-interested Englishmen went further. It was a small but momentous step from saying that black persons could be enslaved to saying that Negroes should be enslaved.

As if this momentous shift were not enough, it was accompanied by another. Those who wrote the colonial laws not only moved to make slavery racial; they also made it hereditary. Under English common law, a child inherited the legal status of the father.

But within seven years that option had been removed.

Why America adopted race-based slavery.

Kinship, the Middle Passage, Slave traders and slaveowners both violently appropriated their bodies and attached meaning to their reproductive potential in ways that powerfully echo in the aftermath of slavery. The women who were the first forced migrants of the African diaspora comprise a foundation on which the edifice of racial slavery rests — but that foundation is not merely symbolic, it is material, and it reverberates not just for the European men who demanded their compliance, but for the African women who refused it.

Before it was quite common for slave ships to transport equal numbers of women and men to slavery in Europe and the Americas, and at times ships were packed with significantly more female captives than male. Indeed, among all migrants to the Americas, both voluntary and involuntary, African women outnumbered European women by four to one until These women were among the first Africans enslaved by Europeans.

Their reproductive capacity was embedded in the very fact of their enslavement, a core part of the way they learned to understand the new terms of their vastly altered reality. Ligon wrote of the men and women purchased in Barbados that:.

We buy them so as the sexes may be equal; for, if they have more Men than Women, the men who are unmarried will come to their masters, and complain, that they cannot live without Wives […] and he tells them, that the next ship that comes, he will buy them Wives, which satisfies them for the present. Arriving to a plantation, these women were summarily assigned either to a man with whom they had survived the crossing or to one on whom they had never laid eyes.

They would then be subjected to a quick and clear education as to the outlines of their future and the presumptions on which that future rested.

For these women, there was a clear connection between the terms of their labor in the cane fields, their sexual availability, and their reproductive future. The labor system, which so clearly subjected both women and men to a speculative violence based on their reproductive futures, took place in broad daylight. The twelve women and eight men sold at the Bridgetown port had experienced the shock of being marketed as part of the daily life of the colonial town. It was not until decades later that auction houses and slave markets became designated as permanently demarcated structures.

Sales of enslaved men and women were part and parcel of the messy colonial society that greeted them when they disembarked after months of stultifying, disorienting travel. On corners, in the back of shops, in the post-office or the public house, on wharfs, on piers, on board ships, after long marches through towns and into the countryside, from the backs of wagons, inside urban living rooms, with a stranger, with a child, with a spouse, alone or in full view of those whose sale would come next.

Sold by men, sold by women, sold by strangers, sold by those who had known them long enough to call them by a name. This is a manifestation of quotidian violence that we have simply not calculated. These are moments in which the potential for pity, compassion or connection were irrevocably set aside in favor of a moral economy where skin color enabled enslavement, and childbirth was relegated to the balance sheet.

In the s, a Portuguese chronicler wrote of coming across a woman who his men tried to subdue and take on board ship along with her children. If she survived her contact with the Portuguese, she would have spent the remainder of her life in the knowledge that her capture was inextricably linked to her love for her son.

Their stories come buried in some very brutal calculus. We know from a variety of sources that children were born on slave ships. Perhaps the most famous is the first person account written by Ignatius Sancho who was himself born on a slave ship in , and became a prominent writer and composer in eighteenth-century England.

Whatever the nature of those feelings, arrival to the Spanish colony of New Granada Columbia soon put an end to them: she died shortly thereafter of fever. She gave birth to a child in an act that immediately and violently showed her that the future she had imagined was no longer in her grasp. On board the ship James in , one woman died days before the ship left the African coast where its crew had been loading men and women for months.

It is very difficult to apprehend her misery. The connections between her and another woman lost during the passage may not have been obvious to the crew. Yet, they seem intimately linked: a little over two months later, another mother on board the ship succumbed after what the captain saw as maternal madness. But even then, their reproductive capacity was part of their earliest understanding of what was happening to them.

The very first description of the end point of the Middle Passage was written in by a Portuguese chronicler, who described the sale of more than men, women, and children at the Lisbon port:. But to increase their sufferings still more, there now arrived those who had charge of the division of the captives, and who began to separate one from another, in order to make an equal partition […]and then was it needful to part fathers from sons, husbands from wives, brothers from brothers […] the mothers clasped their other children in their arms, and threw themselves flat on the ground with them, receiving blows with little pity for their own flesh, if only they might not be torn from them.

Such a lesson would be equally excruciating for those who lost kin at the moment of sale, and for those who left kin far behind at the starting point of their capture. If we know this beyond a shadow of a doubt, how does that change the way we visualize and understand the Middle Passage?

Is the brutality of the slave ship perhaps best captured by the horrifying image of a woman giving birth on board? As we struggle to visualize the agony of forced migration and enslavement, the classic image of a slave ship is often the most powerful one to come to mind.

Seen alongside the more ubiquitous image of the Brookes Fig. But the ability to include such a moment on board a slave ship depended on generations of evidence, of stories circulating, and experiences retold. The birth on board that ship was no more a surprise to the nineteenth-century viewer than the news that sugar on English tables and tobacco in their pipes depended upon hundreds of bodies crammed into those ships.

The shock comes only from the inability to turn away, to close our minds to the truism that these floating portents of death and kinlessness were also spaces of birth. The reality was that the entire economy of the colonies depended upon African women giving birth to slaves, not to children — not to daughters, not to sons, not to kin.

In order to fully face that reality, we must restore enslaved women to our understanding of what the Middle Passage entailed. Moreover, we must reflect on how their lives were embedded in the unfolding structures of the slave trade from its earliest iterations. This means asking two crucial questions. First, how did that birth reinforce the reality of what slave trading meant? Second, how would being on board the slave ship have utterly and unimaginably transformed the experience of pregnancy, as well as the expectations attached to it?

Such a mother would likely have been captured during the early stages of her pregnancy. In turn, the dawning reality of her condition would have probably coincided with the various phases of her capture — forced overland marches, confinement in a slave fort, a long wait on board a ship anchored close to land, and then the realization that the view of the coast and all it held was slipping permanently away.

Her pregnancy marked her journey into a future that she could not have predicted, her desire to protect or parent her child growing increasingly impossible. Indeed, for some, it may have even occasioned further violation. She would join the other mothers on board that ship as they grappled with a perverted future foretold by their pregnant and captive bodies. They were sold and moved and marched and led onto fields and into barracks, whether with or without a swollen belly and infants at the breast.

In those hundreds and thousands of small transactions, women were learning something profound about the claims that were being made through their bodies, something that planted seeds and suggested origins. It springs from that moment of transport and sale, when the relationship between capitalism and kinship was laid absolutely bare. Here we find an articulation of political sovereignty routed through ethnic cohesion, a retention of the African past, military engagement, and the claim-making of territoriality.

Perhaps maternity is as well. It suggests that they had fully realized the shared humanity of the enslaved, and therefore perpetrated unspeakable violence. The point, then, is not to assert that the enslaved were human. Instead, it is to grapple with the ways in which their humanity was used against them, and if, how, and when they pitted their lives and loves and joys and anguish against the terms used by their kidnappers to rationalize their dispossession.

Did every woman whose labor pains brought her to her knees, whether on board a slave ship or in a holding pen awaiting sale, see her birthing as an act of such profound disruption? Of course not.

But did the birth of a child — either lost to sale or retained in defiance — steep those women in a space of love, loss, and anguish that categorically rejected the terms that slaveowners endeavored to render normative, rational, and humane? Did they claim connection in the face of commodification? Did they then produce a counter-narrative, rooted in affective claims to kinship from the very onset of transatlantic slavery? I think so. And I think that such a corporeal rejection constitutes an origin story for the Black Radical tradition.

This is a kinship that is rooted in the body, irrevocably formed in the crucible of a forced migration. Cousins were chosen and sibling bonds crafted, at times so strong that they would preclude marriage with someone with whom the passage had been endured: survival turned them into kin so real that incest prohibitions took hold. Bennett, Herman L. Carretta, Vincent ed. Desrochers Jr. Galenson, David W. Morgan, Jennifer L. Robinson, Cedric J. Her research examines the intersections of gender and race in in the Black Atlantic world.

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Racial slavery

Racial slavery

Racial slavery