HIV human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that attacks the immune system. The immune system becomes weaker, making it harder for the body to fight off infections and some kinds of cancers. Most people who are diagnosed early and take medicines for HIV can live long, healthy lives. In AIDS , the immune system is severely weakened. Serious infections and health problems happen.
In general, the training was designed to give teachers and peer leaders both information on the program and practice using the teaching strategies included in the curricula eg, conducting role-playing exercises and leading group discussions. Negative beliefs and attitudes about HIV called stigma can make adherence especially difficult for adolescents living with HIV. Asutralian porn advent of AIDS affected both the willingness of some schools to cover certain topics and the overall design of some programs. Guidelines and Best Practices. Section Navigation. McGuire W. In the briefest of the three interventions, African-American male teens attending an STD clinic received either a minute video, or a one-on-one session with a health educator, or standard care. These theories help to specify which particular antecedents the interventions should strive to change eg, the beliefs, attitudes, norms, confidence, and skills related to sexual behavior to bring Teenage hiv aids voluntary change in sexual Teenage hiv aids contraceptive behavior.
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These effective programs have a number of identifiable characteristics in common that may serve as guideposts for future interventions. Friedl, W. Low rates of testing mean more young people have undiagnosed HIV. It is not known whether this possible risk of NTDs is shared by other integrase strand transfer Teenage hiv aids i. Recent updates to this resource allow users to explore the latest HIV data at the national- state- or county-level. Need basic statistics for a school report? Making matters more dangerous for teens is the teenage practice of serial monogamy. Clinicians selecting treatment regimens for adolescents must balance the goal of prescribing a maximally potent ART regimen with a realistic assessment of existing and potential support systems to Teenage hiv aids adherence. Skip Teenage hiv aids to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to navigation Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content. The prevalence of pre-exposure prophylaxis use and the pre-exposure prophylaxis-to-need ratio in the fourth quarter ofUnited States. In addition, sex education is not starting early enough: Malice in wonderland teen costume halloween no state did more than half of middle schools teach all 19 sexual health topics recommended by CDC.
Of these, two-thirds were girls.
- HIV human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that attacks the immune system.
- CDC funds and assists state and local health departments to collect the information.
- To get any sort of grasp on the issue of AIDS, one must first examine recent statistics.
- The information in the brief version is excerpted directly from the full-text guidelines.
HIV human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that attacks the immune system. The immune system becomes weaker, making it harder for the body to fight off infections and some kinds of cancers. Most people who are diagnosed early and take medicines for HIV can live long, healthy lives. In AIDS , the immune system is severely weakened.
Serious infections and health problems happen. HIV spreads when infected blood or body fluids such as semen or vaginal fluids enter the body. This can happen:. These symptoms go away in a few weeks. In the first few years after infection, someone with HIV may have mild symptoms, like swollen glands.
Because the symptoms of HIV can be mild at first, some people might not know they're infected. They can spread HIV to others without even knowing it. CD4 cells are part of the immune system. They fight germs and help prevent some kinds of cancers. Health care providers usually diagnose HIV through blood tests. Tests also are available without a prescription at the drugstore. You can do the test at home. Medicines can help people with HIV stay healthy. They must be taken exactly as prescribed or they won't work.
These medicines:. Regular blood tests will check the number of CD4 cells in the body called the CD4 cell count and the viral load. This prevents pneumocystis pneumonia, which happens in people with weakened immune systems.
Treatment has improved greatly for people with HIV. By taking medicines and getting regular medical care, HIV-positive people can live long and healthy lives. Larger text size Large text size Regular text size.
The National Survey of Adolescent Males states that 60 percent of never-married males between the ages of 15 and 19 are sexually active. Regular blood tests will check the number of CD4 cells in the body called the CD4 cell count and the viral load. Reiss and R. Third, these studies suggest that properly designed clinic interventions can have a positive impact on condom use. The experimental design was a rather strong one, but the interventions were very modest, and the study failed to find any significant differences among the behavioral effects of these three treatment models. Anal intercourse is an even riskier activity. Medical personnel have also implemented prevention programs in their clinics in an effort to reduce unprotected intercourse in adolescents.
Teenage hiv aids. Considerations for Antiretroviral Use in Special Patient Populations
Every three minutes a teenage girl is infected by HIV – UNICEF
Many adolescents engage in sexual intercourse with multiple partners and without condoms. Among sexually experienced people, adolescents aged 15 to 19 years have some of the highest reported rates of STDs. In addition, particular groups of adolescents eg, males who have sex with males, injection drug users, and teens who have sex for drugs engage in even greater risk-taking behavior. Some of these programs have been effective at changing behavior, while others have not.
This chapter presents data on adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior, reviews the studies measuring the impact of adolescent prevention programs, and identifies common characteristics of programs that have been effective in reducing sexual risk-taking behavior. It recommends a that these effective school and community programs be implemented more broadly, b that promising clinic programs and comprehensive community-wide campaigns be replicated and evaluated, and c that additional programs focusing on high-risk youth be implemented and evaluated.
In many countries throughout the world, sexually transmitted disease and unplanned pregnancy have always occurred among adolescents. However, during the last century, and especially during the last few decades of that century, the onset of puberty and initiation of sexual intercourse occurred at decreasing ages in many industrialized countries, whereas the average age of marriage increased.
Thus, many adolescents began having sexual intercourse with multiple sexual partners prior to marriage, and this, of course, facilitated STD and HIV transmission. In many countries, a significant proportion of young people initiate sexual activity by age Among students in grades across the U.
Among U. The impact of having sex and especially of having multiple partners is somewhat diminished by the fact that most Americans, including adolescents, have sexual partners within social networks. These networks are often defined by ethnicity, class, geographic location, and other socially defined norms. Sometimes these networks do not connect with each other. Condoms are recognized as an especially important form of contraception, because they are currently the only form of contraception that prevents the transmission of most STDs.
However, condom use varies with urban area, age, ethnicity, gender, and involvement in other risk-taking behaviors, and this national average obscures wide variations in different groups. In young people, for example, condom use declines with age, and is higher among African-Americans than European-Americans.
Although many adolescents have used a condom at some point in time, comparatively few use them during every act of intercourse. STDs are a significant public health concern, and their significance is further increased by their contribution to HIV transmission. According to some estimates, both ulcerative and nonulcerative STDs increase HIV transmission risks as much as 3- to 5-fold.
Adolescents have the highest age-specific rates for some STDs. Similarly, female teenagers have the highest age-specific rate of gonorrhea, whereas male teenagers have the third highest rate.
Globally, an estimated About half of all new HIV infections worldwide, or approximately 6, per day, occur among young people. Despite the challenges of determining at what ages HIV infection occurs, the U. Office of National AIDS Policy has estimated that half of all new HIV infections occur in people under 25 and that half of these occur among young people between the ages of 13 and Among adolescents aged , older adolescents, males, and members of racial minorities have the highest infection rates.
Among both males and females, the risk category was often unidentified. Adolescents, in general, are at risk of contracting HIV through sexual transmission, because a large majority engage in sexual intercourse, have multiple partners over a period of time, and fail to consistently use a condom during every act of intercourse. On the other hand, in the United States, most of these adolescents are actually at relatively low risk, because they rarely, if ever, have sex with people who are HIV infected.
In contrast, adolescents in countries where HIV infection is widespread are at much higher risk of contracting HIV through sexual intercourse, as are adolescents in low-prevalence countries who have unprotected intercourse with members of very high-risk groups eg, males who have sex with other males or injection drug users. In addition, there are some adolescents who engage in very frequent unprotected sex for drugs, and thereby greatly increase their risk, both by having frequent unprotected sex and by having sex with partners in high-risk groups.
These high-risk groups are somewhat bounded by social networks, but this may change. Finally, some adolescents are at risk of contracting HIV through sharing needles used to inject drugs. These patterns have important implications for educational programs. First, they suggest that there should be effective HIV education programs for all young people. Furthermore, they suggest that there should be additional, more focused programs targeting those groups of adolescents who are at higher risk of HIV infection.
Educational programs for school-aged males should adequately address the risks of unprotected intercourse among males who may have sex with males, while programs for young women and female adolescents in the United States should address the special threat of unprotected heterosexual intercourse with injection drug users and the exchange of sex for drugs.
Finally, programs should address drug use and needle sharing. Programs for some of those subgroups of young people who are particularly at risk eg, males who have sex with males, injection drug users, and racial minorities , are discussed in separate chapters. The remainder of this chapter reviews programs designed to reduce sexual risk-taking among adolescents in general in the United States.
In the United States, sex, STD, and HIV education programs have been implemented in a variety of settings including schools, family planning clinics, STD clinics, churches, youth serving agencies, housing projects, homeless shelters, detention centers, and communities more broadly. In addition, programs have tried to reach parents and their adolescent children in their homes, whereas others have used social marketing and media approaches.
As long ago as the early s there was concern that young people were having premarital sex and that the rates of "venereal disease" VD were increasing. Believing that accurate information about VD would prevent youth from engaging in sex, some schools and community organizations implemented VD education programs. However, many more schools began developing programs to address adolescent sexuality during the s when adolescent sexual behavior, unintended pregnancy, STDs, and their consequences were better measured and publicized.
Schools responded far more dramatically when AIDS became a prominent problem in the latter part of the s. The advent of AIDS affected both the willingness of some schools to cover certain topics and the overall design of some programs. Throughout the United States, there has been and continues to be widespread support for sexuality and HIV education in schools. Because of this support, some sex and HIV education programs are implemented with relatively little controversy.
On the other hand, there are sex and HIV education controversies in many other communities and entire states. Often these controversies focus on whether only abstinence should be taught in schools or whether condoms and other forms of contraception should also be discussed. In some communities, proponents of abstinence-only approaches are willing to discuss condoms and other forms of contraception, but only if their failure rates are emphasized.
Other groups believe that condoms and contraception should be covered in a medically accurate manner. As a result of these controversies, an increasing number of states place restrictions on instruction about condoms and contraceptives, and a substantial proportion of schools limit instruction to abstinence. Proponents of more balanced and comprehensive discussion of condoms and contraception are more likely to have such programs implemented when they: a document the sexual activity of the students or adolescents in the targeted community, b document student and parent support for such approaches, c involve parents and community leaders in the design and development of the program, and d listen thoughtfully to opponents and try to accommodate their concerns as much as possible without sacrificing instruction on proper use of condoms.
Other strategies can also facilitate the design and acceptance of more comprehensive programs. Condoms are widely available in schools in some of the largest U. By the end of , at least schools made condoms available to students. Numerous community organizations have also implemented programs. At the forefront of these efforts have been the innumerable county or community AIDS projects that have developed programs for youth. Sometimes these include educational programs in schools, but they also include various types of outreach efforts outside of schools.
Sometimes they target some of the highest risk groups, such as street youth. Many family planning clinics have also given greater emphasis to HIV and STDs, have initiated policies of giving away free condoms, and have tried to become more friendly and attractive to males. Unfortunately, not many of these efforts have been studied nationwide.
Before examining the impact of these programs, two considerations should be made. First, these programs face a daunting challenge. A large number of forces encourage youth to engage in sexual activity, including unprotected sexual activity eg, changing hormones, emotional and physical needs and desires, desires to be an adult and to take risks, ambivalence about becoming pregnant or producing a pregnancy, peer pressures, norms promoting sexual risk-taking, and the omnipresent inaccurate portrayal of sex in the media.
In addition, it is known that significant underlying factors, such as the many manifestations of poverty and family and community disorganization, are related to sexual risk-taking behavior, as is detachment from parents or school and lack of a belief in the future. Second, it should be understood that most kinds of educational instruction are evaluated by assessing the impact of instruction upon knowledge, not upon behavior outside of school.
For example, history or civics classes are not evaluated by measuring their impact on voting, law breaking, or better citizenry. In contrast, when researchers evaluate the impact of sex or HIV instruction upon sexual or contraceptive behavior, they use dramatically more challenging criteria: changing sexual or contraceptive behavior.
Nevertheless, because of the need to identify programs that reduce sexual risk-taking behavior, these more demanding criteria are used in research studies and in this review. There are more than 60 studies that have used experimental or quasi-experimental designs with sample sizes of at least to examine the behavioral impact of school and community education programs that specifically focus on the reduction of sexual risk-taking behavior among adolescents 18 years old or younger.
However, it was possible to measure the impact upon behaviors that are logically related to HIV and STD infection rates: age of initiation of intercourse, frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners, condom use, and contraceptive use. Abstinence programs focus upon the importance of abstinence from sexual intercourse, typically abstinence until marriage.
Either these programs do not discuss condoms or contraception or they briefly discuss the failure of condoms and contraceptives to provide complete protection against STD and pregnancy. Thus, these programs are not well suited for those young adults at highest risk--gay males. To date, there are only three studies of abstinence programs that meet reasonable scientific criteria.
Additional, rigorous evaluations of abstinence-only programs are currently under way. These programs differ from the abstinence-only programs in that they often emphasize abstinence as the safest choice and also encourage the use of condoms and other methods of contraception as ways to protect against STDs or pregnancy.
This group includes a wide variety of programs, ranging from sex or AIDS education programs taught in school to programs taught in homeless shelters and detention centers. They reflect the considerable creativity and differing perspectives of these agencies. Studies of these programs strongly support the conclusion that sexuality and HIV education curricula do not increase sexual intercourse, either by reducing the age at first intercourse, increasing the frequency of intercourse, or increasing the number of sexual partners.
Of the 28 evaluations of middle school, high school, or community sexuality or HIV education programs that measured the impact of the programs on the initiation of intercourse, nine studies found that their respective programs delayed the initiation of sex, 18 studies found that the programs had no significant impact one way or the other, and only one study found that the program hastened the onset of intercourse. Similarly, of 19 studies that measured the impact of programs upon the frequency of sex, five programs decreased the frequency, 13 had no significant impact, and only one increased the frequency.
Finally, of 10 studies that measured impact on number of sexual partners, three programs reduced the number of partners, seven had no impact, and none increased the number of sexual partners.
Thus, a multitude of studies clearly demonstrates that these programs that emphasize abstinence but also encourage condom and contraceptive use for sexually active youth do not increase sexual behavior and that some of these programs may actually decrease one or more sexual behaviors. Studies of these programs also suggest that some, but not all, of the programs increased condom use or contraceptive use more generally. Eighteen studies examined program impact upon condom use, and 10 of them found that the programs did increase some measure of condom use, whereas the remaining programs had no significant effect.
The Effective Program and Research Task Force of the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy has reviewed the evidence for the effectiveness of programs in reducing sexual risk-taking behaviors, and has identified five programs with particularly strong evidence for success in delaying sex or increasing condom use.
These five include: 30,31, When these five curricula and other curricula having significant positive behavioral outcomes are compared with curricula without such positive behavioral results, the effective curricula share 10 characteristics, which may be linked to their success, whereas the ineffective curricula lack one or more of these characteristics.
These programs focused narrowly on a small number of specific behavioral goals, such as delaying the initiation of intercourse or using condoms or other forms of contraception; relatively little time was spent addressing other sexuality issues, such as gender roles, dating, or parenthood. Nearly every activity was directed toward the behavioral goals. Effective programs were based on theoretical approaches that have been demonstrated to be effective in influencing other health-related risky behaviors.
Such approaches include social cognitive theory, 35 social influence theory, 36 social inoculation theory, 37 cognitive behavioral theory, 38,35 theory of reasoned action, 39 and theory of planned behavior. In addition, social influence theories address societal pressures on youth and the importance of helping young people understand those pressures and resist the negative ones.