Family: solanaceae nightshade family. This is an erect tropical shrub growing up to 4" tall. The deeply lobed leaves have long spikes on its surface; the flowers are white to violet. The fruit is a round yellow berry with numerous brownish-red seeds in it. Hardiness: USDA zone 9 -
Barnack Beauty. Solanum mammosum Linn. Collard Sprouting. G1 Anno Imo. Click to enlarge. Here, the plant is known as tsunonasu horned eggplantkanariyanasu canary eggplant and kitsunenasu fox eggplant. Napa Red. According to Mabberly the Nipple fruit vectors for S. Vid wiktionary DB,
Ali bikini landry thong. Nipple Fruit
Capsicum exile Cobincho Pepper. Brugmansia versicolor Orange Angel's Trumpet. Solanum mammosum is primarily grown as an ornamental or curiosity. Its flowers are Nipple fruit through to pink-purple, and the seeds inside the fruit are red-brown. The rest of us will have to content ourselves with a few mental pictures and a good imagination boosted by colorful names. The plant adapts well to most soils, but thrives Free picture of girl stripping moist, loamy soil. Wikimedia Commons has ffuit related to Solanum mammosum. Seeds are now available at our seed store. Brugmansia candida White Angel's Trumpet. Your email address will not be published. Retrieved SEP The fruit has been embraced by Eastern cultures. If you have any other Nipple fruit or a recipe that you frujt like us to include, tell us recipes will be attributed to you. Physalis pruinosa Ground Cherry. The nipple fruit is related to the naranjilla and tomato, and the plant looks similar.
Fruits are poisonous if ingested.
- Solanum mammosum is commonly known as nipplefruit ,  fox head ,  cow's udder , or apple of Sodom , is an inedible Pan-American tropical fruit.
- Unless you live in tropical South America, Central America or the Caribbean, you may not be aware of Solanum mammosum.
- We Need Your Feedback We want you to tell us what you would like to see on our posts; more recipes, more information about the same herbs and spices, or do you want to know about different ones?
It is an annual or short-lived perennial PBI Solanum Project, that reproduces by seeds, which may be dispersed by both biotic and abiotic factors, as they are encased in bright yellow-coloured, large, spongy fruit that can float on water Chiarini and Barboza, ; The species is a known weed in Jamaica Holm et al. Solanaceae , the Nightshade family, consists of 90 genera and species with great variation in habit and distribution on all continents except Antarctica, with the majority of species diversity in Central and South America PBI Solanum Project, Solanum is one of the largest genera of vascular plants with species, around of which are speculated to be of American origin Hunziker, Taxonomy of the genus and its seven subgenera have undergone many revisions, but the overall genus consists of herbs, shrubs, trees, or herbaceous or woody vines, usually with spines or prickles, glabrous or pubescent with simple or stellate hairs Acevedo-Rodriguez, The Solanum genus includes the wild potato, S.
The genus Solanum has been divided into seven subgenera, which are further divided into sections and subsections. Cuda et al. Nee further divided Acanthophora into two subsections based on seed morphology, due to the unique winged seed structure of several species; however, the seeds of S. Both the species name mammosum and its common name nipplefruit nightshade refer to the peculiar shape of its fruits Smith, ; Wiart, The name Solanum mammosum was also invalidly given to other nightshade species: S.
Herbert based on Dunal in de Candolle is the S. Herb or shrub to 1. Leaves cm long, broadly ovate, pin- natifidly lobed, the base truncate to deeply cordate, both sides villous with long, simple, glandular hairs, short-stalked glands and sessile, long-radiate stellae with ascending radii, armed with flattened acicular spines to 3 cm long; petioles cm long, sparingly armed.
Inflorescence lateral, several-flowered, a short raceme on a short to 10 mm long peduncle; pedicels mm long, becoming stout and somewhat longer in fruit, viscid-villous to lanate, armed or not. Flowers with the calyx unarmed, deeply lobed, the lobes lanceolate, pubescent outside, mm long; corolla violet, showy, exceeding the calyx times in bud, cm across, lobed about halfway; filaments very short, the anthers mm long, linear-oblong and tapering.
Fruit orange or yellow, mm long, ovoid, often with a 2 cm long, nipple-like apex, and sometimes. The fruits of this species are globulose in Colombia and Venezuela, but the more widely cultivated plants are less prickly and bear fruits shaped with peculiar nipple-like protrusions Hanelt et al. These large fruits can reach up to 5. They are usually a vibrant yellow; colour has been attributed to the dispersal syndrome and brightly coloured fruits would be more attractive to birds Chiarini and Barboza, Briefly, the globose fruit form is undoubtedly the primitive condition and is nearly confined to the Llanos of Venezuela and adjacent areas where the species seems well-adapted to the seasonally dry grassland climate.
In Panama, the species is both cultivated and wild Panama Checklist, In India, the species was reportedly under experimental introduction as of Deb, , although it had already been in country since at least Madhavadian, In the Caribbean, Broome et al.
Lucia, St. Vincent and Grenadines. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. According to Nee , S.
The toxicity of the species has been used as an insecticide and to catch fish in many places including Costa Rica, Venezuela, Peru, and El Salvador, and Nee suggests the species was dispersed for these reasons with man across South and Central America Nee, ; PBI Solanum Project, By at the latest the species was present in Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, St.
Vincent, Barbados, and continental tropical America, as Urban reported in his work on the West Indies Urban, In , Britton recorded the species growing on St. Croix in his work on the Virgin Islands Britton, Risk of introduction of S. However the species is known to be invasive in some places beyond its native range Merrill, ; Oviedo Prieto et al.
Despite observing none of this species on Samoa, Space and Flynn included it in their list of species that pose an invasive threat to Samoa; as they note, the species is already present in the nearby islands Fiji and Tonga.
The fruits have the ability to be carried by water due to their spongy mesocarps Nee, ; ; Chiarini and Barboza, ; and also attract birds with the bright yellow coloured fruits Chiarini and Barboza, Considering its potential for intentional and unintentional dispersal by both biotic and abiotic factors, the probability of invasion may rise in areas near its cultivation.
The species is known to be an agricultural weed in sugarcane fields of Java Randall, In the Philippines, the species occurs in thickets and waste places along roads at low altitudes Merrill, ; Pelser et al. In Ecuador, it occurs along the coastal and Amazonian regions Vascular Plants of Ecuador, , while in Nicaragua, it is uncommon but found near homes and in very disturbed areas Flora of Nicaragua, Likewise in Peru, S. It is also cultivated in garden settings around the world as an ornamental.
Although it is frequently used as an ornamental, S. The chromosome count for S. Environmental Requirements. It generally occurs in warm tropical areas with at least seasonally heavy precipitation, although in Venezuela, the species seems well-adapted to seasonally dry grassland climate PBI Solanum Project, The elevation range for S.
In Nicaragua it has been found to grow at altitudes up to m Flora of Nicaragua, In Peru, the species grows at altitudes up to m Peru Checklist, It can be expected to occur in cultivation anywhere in the Old and New tropics and has the potential to escape PBI Solanum Project, According to Mabberly the dispersal vectors for S.
Furthermore, the fruits are yellow, a colour attractive to birds that would then serve as dispersal agents Chiarini and Barboza, The species does contain alkaloids which are both harmful to human health and useful in the pharmaceutical industry Telek et al. It is known to be invasive in areas of both the Old and New tropics, and is listed as an agricultural weed in the Global Compendium of Weeds Randall, , but needs further assessment to determine the extent of its negative effect on the environment.
Many Solanaceae species are known to be acutely toxic due to alkaloidal properties and have a long history of use as both human poisons and hallucinogens, especially in shaman and witch lore PBI Solanum Project, It is a source of solasodine Telek et al. Parts of S. Field experiments have demonstrated the potential use of the species as a natural insecticide for crops such as bananas Segovia, ; Welman, The following is taken from M.
It is most similar to S. In areas where S. Additional research on the pharmacological evidence and safety of traditional use is also recommended. Flora of St. John, U. Virgin Islands. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies.
Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, pp. An-ming L, Solanaceae in China. In: Solanaceae: Biology and Systematics. AVRDC, Bello Espinosa D, Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte. Nat, Bohs L, Major clades in Solanum based on ndhF sequences. D'Arcy: the legacy of a taxonomist. Bolivia Checklist, Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. Britton NL, The flora of the American Virgin Islands. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database.
Barbados: University of the West Indies. Burke D, Millers Point, N. W, Australia: Murdoch Books, pp. Placentation patterns and seed number in fruits of South American Solanum subgen. Leptostemonum Solanaceae species. Darwiniana, 45 2 Fruit anatomy of species of Solanum sect. Acanthophora Solanaceae. Flora Jena , 2 A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species.
Fruits are poisonous if ingested. The fruit is actually a berry. Solanum chessmanii Galapagos Island Tomato. Retrieved April 13, Join Our E-Newsletter! The branches and stems are also dotted with firm thorns. The juice of the fruit can be used as a detergent in place of a washing powder, making it similar to the soap nut.
Nipple fruit. Seed Availability
Solanum mammosum - Wikipedia
Botany Utong is a coarse and branched half-woody plant, prickly or unarmed, growing to a height of 0. Stems are prickly and covered with soft short hairs. Leaves are ovate to oblong-ovate, broad as they are long, 10 to 25 centimeters long, armed on both surfaces with long, stout spines, stellate-hairy beneath, and irregularly and shallowly lobed at the margin. Inflorescences are umbelliform and lateral, with 1 to 6 flowers. Flowers are axillary, about 2.
Fruit is fleshy, smooth, purple when ripe, up to 25 centimeters long, extremely variable in shape, rounded, oblong, or cylindric-oblong. Seeds are compressed, purple-brown, millimeters in diameter. Fruit flesh is white. Distribution - In thickets and waste places along the roads at low altitudes in Leyte; Zamboanga, Mindanao, and Jolo. Constituents - Fruit contains trigonelline, choline, vitamins A, B, and C; fat 0. Results showed indioside D induced apoptosis in HeLa cells via both intrinsic and extrinsic cell death pathways.
Study reports on the use of added methyl jasmonate, cholesterol, and L-arginine into the modified liquid full-strength MS medium could influence the solasodine production in the hairy roots of S. The amount of solasodine was five times higher than those without both elicit or and precursor treatment.
The improved solasodine production with high biomass growth can reduce the production cost of steroid synthesis in the long run. Study evaluated a mixture of aqueous extracts of the three plants for synergistic effect between them.
All were diluted to ppm. Mixes with best results on mortality were choses to determine the LD The formulations of S. While no synergistic effect was found between mixture of aqueous extracts of the three species, the mixing of Sapindus saponria and Solanum mammosum can be useful in areas where the effectiveness of S.
Toxicity - Despite known toxicity some reports list the fruits and leaves as palatable. Lim, 12 Availability - Wild-crafted. Proteome Res. Part II. Telek, H. Delpin and E. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. The University of Melbourne. Quijano, C. Riera-Ruiz, A. Barragan, M. Miranda, T. Orellana, P.
Food Agric. Diaz, Edgar Cardenas, and Maria C. Properties - Fruit considered purgative, phlegmatic, generative. Parts used Roots, leaves, fruits. Uses Nutrition - Fruit makes an excellent vegetable, the elongated kind is most cultivated, eaten before it ripens, before the seed hardens. The green leaves are a good source of vitamin C. Folkloric - Root decoction taken for asthma and as general stimulant. Others - Decorative : Fruit collected ripe with the branches used for interior decoration.
Species used as poison against cockroaches, rats, and insects. Hanelt et al, 11 In Columbia, identified as poisonous to cattle, causing prostration. Fruits use during Chinese Lunar New Year celebrations with the fruit color symboizing wealth. Lim, 11 Stuart Jr. Potential Herbal Medicines and Drug Interactions.
List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants. Alternative Medicine Dictionary. Plant Names. Solanum globiferum Dunal. Solanum mammosum Linn. Solanum mammosum is an accepted name. The Plant List. Other vernacular names. Lim, 12 11 Availability - Wild-crafted. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI if available will often redirect to the new link page.