Breastfeeding debates can leave families feeling embattled from both sides, but controversy over who should breastfeed and for how long and where shows no signs of letting up. For example, in July, news broke that the United States had fought a seemingly uncontroversial resolution in support of breastfeeding at the World Health Assembly earlier this spring. But, though such controversies can seem like a distinctly modern problem, breastfeeding has long been fraught. When historian Jacqueline H. I was a graduate student when I was pregnant.
Adverse reactions to consumption of juices appear to be common Bock and regular Infant feeding history of juices Inffant infants with erupted teeth may contribute to development of dental caries, a threat that is exaggerated because juices are marketed in bottles that accept a nipple assembly. Inthe Committee on Nutrition revised and extended its recommendations Incant nutrient content of infant Infant feeding history Committee on Nutrition a. Can J Public Health. Lysozyme is an enzyme Infantt is responsible for protecting the body by damaging bacterial cell walls. Infant formulas. Food and Drug Anal lube replacements BBC News. Actual prices and savings may vary by store and location. Handling and storage of milk improved. If you prefer not to leave an email address, check back at your NCpedia comment for a reply.
Charzard sex. Read More From TIME
Categories : Breastfeeding. Modern, scientifically produced formulas in clean bottles, however, now offer another safe choice for babies in North Carolina and elsewhere. See also: Breastfeeding in public. The reformulation and concentration of Similac inand the introduction by Mead Johnson of Enfamil for "infant meal" in were accompanied by marketing campaigns that provided inexpensive formula to hospitals and pediatricians. Ina case of melamine poisoning of infant formula was discovered in Chinawhere milk was deliberately adulterated with the chemical, leading to the death of six babies, and illnesses in more thaninfants, including cases of acute kidney failure. You can help That some children survived is a tribute to human omnivore adaptability, not proof of dietary suitability — just as survival and growth on infant formula is not proof of its perfection, least of all where antibiotics are available to treat infection. Lawrence RA, Lawrence R. Some parents mentioned elimination issues as Logiciel gestion fils rss gratuit francais reason to or not use juice Infant feeding history. Since the early s, Infant feeding history countries have witnessed a resurgence in breastfeeding among newborns and infants to 6 months of age. Does your child drink juice? Web statistics monitored by Google Analytics. Laws protecting the right to nurse aim to change attitudes and promote increased incidence Pregnancy headphones duration of breastfeeding. What kind of snacks does your child get in child care? No similar series exists anywhere else.
Her fellowship is focused on cleft lip and cleft palate genetics in relation to infant feeding.
- Breastfeeding debates can leave families feeling embattled from both sides, but controversy over who should breastfeed and for how long and where shows no signs of letting up.
- Tuesday, December 8, Breastfeeding history links on Kellymom.
- Infant formula , baby formula or just formula American English or baby milk , infant milk or first milk British English , is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, usually prepared for bottle -feeding or cup-feeding from powder mixed with water or liquid with or without additional water.
- What follows is the Content but not the lovely formatting of the entire chapter and references, pp.
- The history and culture of breastfeeding traces changing social, medical and legal attitudes to breastfeeding , the act of feeding a child breast milk directly from breast to mouth.
- Used by permission of the publisher.
Breastfeeding debates can leave families feeling embattled from both sides, but controversy over who should breastfeed and for how long and where shows no signs of letting up. For example, in July, news broke that the United States had fought a seemingly uncontroversial resolution in support of breastfeeding at the World Health Assembly earlier this spring.
But, though such controversies can seem like a distinctly modern problem, breastfeeding has long been fraught. When historian Jacqueline H. I was a graduate student when I was pregnant. Was there anything you found in your initial research that really surprised you? My central research question was at what point and why did American women begin to bottle feed as opposed to breastfeed.
I kept going back and back in time trying to find when the change happened, and it turned out it was the late 19th century, so I ended up writing a completely different dissertation — and eventually book — than I had anticipated.
Was there ever a period when breastfeeding was not complicated? I was thinking there must have been one, but then on the other hand you have something like the idea of a wet nurse going way back.
Wet nursing actually was a visible occupation until the s in the United States. Hospitals in the U. It was not a pleasant occupation. Really, what it meant was that a wealthy baby lived and a poor baby died. That was the history of wet nursing in the U. Did this make it seem like breastfeeding was something that only poor women did? It was never that cut-and-dried.
But they also wanted to gear the substance to specific babies, so they had very elaborate theories. When does formula start being produced by businesses rather than individual doctors and chemists? It was the Civil War that [widely] introduced canned milk, because that was given to the troops, and it was around that time in the s that a lot of proprietary infant food companies first made an appearance as well.
Is that what happens to breastfeeding? This goes back to how I ended up looking at the s and the s as a turning point. The U. People were starting to work in factories and they had to pay more attention to time. We see the introduction in infant-care manuals of very detailed feeding schedules. No one connected it to the change in culture and the change in infant feeding habits. The doctors came up with all these theories. One of them was that [lactation] was simply a disappearing function.
There was a large group of doctors who feared that when girls were in school during the time they were going through puberty, their reproductive systems were competing with their brains for energy, and their brains were winning — the over-education of girls.
The medical community was really worried that they had to come up with a solution for infant health, because they feared that this inability to lactate was going to become a permanent problem. Women who are mothers, that tends to be a big part of their identity. We want to perform well. We want to do the best for our children. It feels very threatening to be criticized.
So breast pumps were so they could pump the milk and feed the baby with a spoon or a cup. The women most likely to breastfeed are privileged women, women who are wealthier, who are college educated, who might have their own offices at work where they can close the door and have some privacy to pump.
The effect of infant feeding habits on public health was very stark more than a century ago. Today, still, the ramifications for public health have been profound. The structure of human milk is largely unexplored territory and scientists are just beginning to look at this truly living substance.
They have real clout. I am not anti-formula. Thank goodness if families and children and mothers need formula, we have it there. It should be there in case of emergencies, and thank goodness it is.
Write to Lily Rothman at lily. By Lily Rothman July 31, View Sample. Sign Up Now. Each product we feature has been independently selected and reviewed by our editorial team. If you make a purchase using the links included, we may earn commission.
Related Stories. Sign Up for Our Newsletters Sign up to receive the top stories you need to know now on politics, health and more.
Such mothers were known to continue to use formula for longer than mothers who began to formula feed from birth, who typically moved on to cows milk and other foods from three months onwards. The mythical figure Philosophia-Sapientia, the personification of wisdom, suckled philosophers at her breast and by this way they absorbed wisdom and moral virtue. Related Parent Resources. Sign Up Now. The following must be included in all formulas produced in the U. Infant formula is one of the top three consumer commodities in the Philippines, and among the most imported products.
Infant feeding history. Read More From TIME
Lysozyme is an enzyme that is responsible for protecting the body by damaging bacterial cell walls. Lactoferrin is a globular, multifunctional protein that has antimicrobial activity. The current evidence suggests that there may be little or no difference between formula milk with and without LCPUFA supplementation in terms of babies' visual function, physical growth or neurodevelopment.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Further information: Infant food safety. Main article: Breastfeeding contraindications. Main article: Chinese milk scandal. Food and Drug Administration. What is an infant formula. Nutritional considerations in infant formula design. Retrieved April 3, Infant Feeding in the 20th Century: Formula and Beikost. Retrieved September 16, Retrieved May 24, World Health Organization.
Global strategy for infant and young child feeding. Geneva, Retrieved August 8, Retrieved June 8, Guidelines for the safe preparation, storage and handling of powdered infant formula. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. May 22, World Breastfeeding Week August 1—7, December 5, December 1, Can J Public Health. August 26, Retrieved February 25, HIV transmission through breastfeeding: A review of available evidence.
Geneva: World Health Organization, Clin Perinatol. J Pediatr Rio J in Portuguese. PLoS Pathog 8 6 : e January 24, Retrieved February 23, J Health Popul Nutr. Archived from the original on February 13, Retrieved December 3, BBC News. Retrieved December 26, Pandora's Project. Retrieved March 20, December BMC Public Health. New York Times. Retrieved September 15, Exposition to and health effects of residues in human milk. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology.
Dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls and other organohalogen compounds in human milk. Levels, correlations, trends and exposure through breastfeeding. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. January 1, Journal of Obesity.
J Hum Lact. Diabetes Metab. Early Hum. An overview of evidence from cognitive and behavioral tests in humans and animals". Medscape Psychiatry and Mental Health. Retrieved August 4, Questions and Answers — Melamine. Retrieved August 9, Chicago Tribune. Retrieved April 23, In , Syntex eliminated salt from the formula, a move that Hayes said caused Genetic engineering and infant foods. Infant Feeding Products. The sensitivity of the child to sex steroids: possible impact of exogenous estrogens.
Mayo Clinic. Retrieved October 7, Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. Cengage, G. In Essential of Functional Foods". Aspen Publishers. Google Book Search. Retrieved on November 7, International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. June 20, Breastfeeding advocates form consolidated action against formula companies. Makati City, November 13, Baby Friendly Initiative. E; Patrick, T. E; Pickler, R The Journal of Perinatal Education. Contemporary Pediatric. B C Decker Inc.
New York: H. The National Academies Press. Archived from the original on September 13, Archived from the original on August 30, Animal chemistry: with reference to the physiology and pathology of man. Lea and Blanchard. New York: Oxford University Press. Journal of American History. Diet in Health and Disease.
New York: W. Saunders Co. Archives of Pediatrics. The New York Times. Retrieved August 11, Infant formula. June 10, June 4, Retrieved May 22, Defining Safety for Infants. Taurine in neonatal nutrition — revisited.
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links CS1 Portuguese-language sources pt CS1 maint: archived copy as title CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list CS1 errors: missing periodical CS1 errors: dates Use mdy dates from May All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from August Articles with unsourced statements from September Namespaces Article Talk.
However, among women who breastfed for more than three months, returning to work or a previous decision to stop at that time were the top reasons. Since , Cuba 's constitution has contained a provision officially recognising and supporting breastfeeding. Article 68 of the constitution reads, in part: During the six weeks immediately preceding childbirth and the six weeks following, a woman shall enjoy obligatory vacation from work on pay at the same rate, retaining her employment and all the rights pertaining to such employment and to her labour contract.
During the nursing period, two extraordinary daily rest periods of a half hour each shall be allowed her to feed her child. Traditional beliefs in many developing countries give different advice to women raising their newborn child. In Ghana babies are still frequently fed with tea alongside breastfeeding, reducing the benefits of breastfeeding and inhibiting the absorption of iron, important in the prevention of anaemia.
In response to public pressure, the health departments of various governments have recognised the importance of encouraging mothers to breastfeed. The required provision of baby changing facilities was a large step towards making public places more accessible for parents and in many countries there are now laws in place to protect the rights of a breastfeeding mother when feeding her child in public.
Under this advice they have developed national breastfeeding strategies, including the promotion of its benefits and attempts to encourage mothers, particularly those under the age of 25, to choose to feed their child with breast milk.
However, there has been a long, ongoing struggle between corporations promoting artificial substitutes and grassroots organisations and WHO promoting breastfeeding. A breastfeeding mother in public with her baby will often need to breastfeed her child. A baby's need to feed cannot be determined by a set schedule, so legal and social rules about indecent exposure and dress code are often adapted to meet this need. A United States House of Representatives appropriations bill HR with a breastfeeding amendment was signed into law on September 29, It stipulated that no government funds may be used to enforce any prohibition on women breastfeeding their children in Federal buildings or on Federal property.
Further, U. Public Law Sec. Most, but not all, state laws have affirmed the same right in their public places. By June , 36 states had enacted legislation to protect breastfeeding mothers and their children. Laws protecting the right to nurse aim to change attitudes and promote increased incidence and duration of breastfeeding. Although Canadian human rights protection does not explicitly include breastfeeding, a Supreme Court of Canada decision Brooks v. Safeway Canada set the precedent for pregnancy as a condition unique to women and that thus discrimination on the basis of pregnancy is a form of sex discrimination.
Canadian legal precedent also allows women the right to bare their breasts, just as men may. The following table shows the uptake of exclusive breastfeeding. If a mother cannot feed her baby herself, and no wet nurse is available, then other alternatives have to be found, usually animal milk. In addition, once the mother begins to wean her child, the first food is very important.
Feeding vessels dating from about BC have been found in Egypt. A mother holding a very modern-looking nursing bottle in one hand and a stick, presumably to mix the food, in the other is depicted in a relief found in the ruins of the palace of King Ashurbanipal of Nineveh , who died in BC.
Valerie Fildes writes in her book Breasts, bottles and babies. A history of Infant Feeding about examples from the 9th to 15th centuries of children getting animal's milk. In the 17th and 18th century Icelandic babies got cow's milk with cream and butter.
In , the Italian physician Geronimo Mercuriali wrote in De morbis mulieribus On the diseases of women that women generally finished breastfeeding an infant exclusively after the third month and entirely around 13 months of age. The feeding of flour or cereal mixed with broth or water became the next alternative in the 19th century, but once again quickly faded. Around this time there became an obvious disparity in the feeding habits of those living in rural areas and those in urban areas.
Most likely due to the availability of alternative foods, babies in urban areas were breastfed for a much shorter length of time, supplementing the feeds earlier than those in rural areas. In the International Baby Food Action Network IBFAN was formed to help raise awareness of such practices as supplementary feeding of new babies with formula and the inappropriate promotion of baby formula, and to help change attitudes that discourage or inhibit mothers from breastfeeding their babies.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Breastfeeding in public. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. September The One Best Way?
Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Los Mochicas. Retrieved May 19, Nature's Body. Gender in the Making of Modern Science. Boston: Beacon Press. The New Yorker. January 19, Naar een rationele zuigelingenvoeding. Voedingsleer en kindergeneeskunde in Nederland — Nijmegen: Thieme. Mothers and Medicine. A Social History of Infant Feeding, — Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press.
Part I: Infant feeding patterns past and present. Transgender Health. New Scientist. Retrieved February 21, Canadian Perinatal Health Report Archived from the original PDF on November 16, Retrieved January 26, Healthy Weights Connection.
Retrieved March 7, September 15, Can J Public Health. BBC News. Social Change. National Conference of State Legislatures. Archived from the original on April 29, Retrieved April 14, La Leche League International.
Archived from the original on March 28, Retrieved January 23, UK Department of Health.
Breastfeeding in US: A Complicated History of Infant Feeding | Time
Should I use breast milk or baby formula? The discussion about what to feed the baby has been going on for a long time. In fact, it's nearly as old as the first U. And that's where the story begins. Here are highlights from the history of baby formula, from breastfeeding and cow's milk, which has been in the mix too. Late s : Commercially prepared infant formula in powdered form is born. Because it's expensive, however, many parents can't afford it.
From now through the s and the Great Depression, most infants are breastfed through their first year. If they're given infant formula, it's homemade from cow's milk or from evaporated milk. Starting in , during the year of the great stock market crash, soy formula also becomes available for babies allergic to cow' milk. It pioneered policies to protect consumer's economic wellbeing and created food standards to unify the identity, quality, and quantity of food in containers, to level the playing field regarding the value consumers could expect.
More on the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act will be shared in a minute. Homemade formula, though, is still popular among babies under six months old who aren't breastfed. Breastfeeding rates begin to slowly decline.
Liquid concentrate infant formula is the predominant form of infant formula sold for the next 20 years. Still, in the early s, most infants are breastfed until six months then switched to cow's milk because it's less expensive than formula. According to a national mail-back survey conducted in , only 30 percent of mother of young infants reported their babies were either completely or partially breastfed at one week of age.
Fewer than 25 percent of infants in the United States are breastfed in the hospital compared to today's standard of 75 percent. An article in the New York Times published April 8, , reports the World Health Organization WHO deplores the trend, suggesting the Western "fashion" of not breastfeeding is being diffused to the rest of the world.
Typically infants who aren't breastfed are given commercially prepared infant formula until they are four to six months old, then switched to cow's milk because it's cheaper than formula. The U. Department of Health and Human Services establishes its first ever national health objective for breastfeeding. The goal: By , 75 percent of women breastfeed in the hospital and 35 percent are still nursing when their babies are six months old. This amendment regulates infant formula to ensure the safety and nutrition of infant formulas.
It establishes minimum, and in some cases, maximum, nutrient levels for infant formula, standardizing the nutritional content across all brands.
The Act also mandates quality control procedures for producing infant formula and gives the Food and Drug Administration FDA the authority to enforce standards for infant formula across the nation. Health-care professionals express concern that this practice will negatively impact breastfeeding rates and infant health.
Previously, infant formula companies in the United States marketed their formula to health-care professionals only. Only Formula sales dip in the mids by 10 percent then hold steady. Store Brand formulas also meet the nutritional levels recommended by the U.
According to a study in Pediatric Nursing: "Health-care professionals must help mothers determine what type of formula to feed their child, such as an iron-fortified, milk-based formula or a soy-based formula.
It is also key to realize that the Federal Food and Drug Administration tightly regulates infant formula so they are all nutritionally equivalent. The only significant difference among today's term formula options is price. Most leading retailers around the country carry a store brand of formula that bears the store's name that's…regulated by the FDA, and available at a significant savings.
Surgeon General, Regina M. Benjamin, M. Today: Breastfeeding is going strong; 75 percent of moms start out breastfeeding in the hospital and 47 percent are still at it six months later. Still, baby formula continues to be popular too. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, more than 80 percent of infants three to 11 months old in the United States are fed at least some infant formula.
The volume of infant formula sold in the United States is approximately 28 billion ounces per year. As you can see, breastfeeding and formula-feeding rates have fluctuated for more than years, coinciding with formula-feeding practices, which have fallen in and out of favor. The debate about what to do and which is best is likely to continue for as long as there are babies and the availability of both breast milk and infant formula.
Overall, what to feed the baby is a personal choice that depends on you, your situation, your values, your baby, and other factors. Because infant formulas have become so nutritionally complete, cow's milk for infants is a thing of the past.
It isn't recommended anymore for babies until after their first birthday because straight cow's milk can be difficult for babies to digest. And unlike breast milk or formula, cow's milk doesn't contain the crucial nutrients vital for a baby's first year of life. That's one less decision you have to make compared to your parent's or their parent's generations, which narrows the field to just three options for infants: breast milk, formula, or a combination of the two with supplemental formula-feeding.
Sandra Gordon is a consumer products expert, a writer, and a mother of two. Actual prices and savings may vary by store and location. The "Spark" Design, Walmart and Save money. Live better. What Should We Feed Baby? So when was baby formula invented? About the Author Sandra Gordon is a consumer products expert, a writer, and a mother of two.
Breast milk is best for babies.