How does silicone affect plant growth-Silicon and Plants: Current Knowledge and Technological Perspectives

Si is not considered essential for plant growth and development, however, increasing evidence in the literature shows that this metalloid is beneficial to plants, especially under stress conditions. Indeed Si alleviates the toxic effects caused by abiotic stresses, e. Biogenic silica is also a deterrent against herbivores. Additionally, Si ameliorates the vigor of plants and improves their resistance to exogenous stresses. The protective role of Si was initially attributed to a physical barrier fortifying the cell wall e.

How does silicone affect plant growth

How does silicone affect plant growth

How does silicone affect plant growth

Nature— Protective effect of silicon on phenolic biosynthesis and ultraviolet spectral stress in rice crop. Ggowth In spite of the ubiquitous presence and effect of Si on numerous plant species, Si research has been mostly conducted on monocots in general, and grasses in particular. The use of nanotechnology in agriculture is gaining importance because it contributes to develop new sustainable strategies. Function of Silicon Silicon seems to benefit certain plants when they are under stress.

Webcam chat clients. Role of silicon in biotic stress tolerance

Bluelab Leap Spear Tip Probe What is rdna and what is mean? What effect CO2 has on plants in greenhouses? In flower it can be pushed 2. In gerbera, flower diameter increased with sodium silicate foliar sprays. For more: Selecta, ; www. Suberin acts as a barrier to water and solute movement. The Casparian strip is a band of radial cell walls in the endodermis that is impregnated with the wax-like, hydrophobic substance suberin. Thick straight stems were evident with helianthus How does silicone affect plant growth zinnia. If not, intermediate accumulators may benefit from additional supplementation with silicon. A solution with a set EC value of 2.

Silicon is the seventh most abundant element in the universe and the second most abundant element on the planet, after oxygen, making about 25 percent of the Earth's crust.

  • Increased stem diameter of Helianthus annuus with silicon supplementation.
  • Friday, October 5, Ed Bloodnick.
  • Elemental Silicon is a highly beneficial plant nutrient.
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Increased stem diameter of Helianthus annuus with silicon supplementation. Potassium silicate powder incorporated into the growing medium right vs. Ever wonder why plants sometime seem to grow better in the ground than in a container? There are a lot of things that contribute to the growth differences, but we decided to investigate whether nutrient levels played a role. When comparing a field soil to a greenhouse substrate, there is a notable difference in the level of some nutrients.

One of these nutrients is silicon so we looked at the effects this minor element might have on floriculture plants if it was added to a greenhouse substrate. Silicon Si is a non-essential nutrient for most plants. However, in field crops it is known to affect plant growth and quality, photosynthesis, transpiration and enhance plant resistance to stresses such as drought.

In floriculture production, most plants are grown in soilless substrates consisting primarily of peat moss or pine bark. In these substrates the silicon concentration is limited and its supplementation might be beneficial. Growth enhancement We conducted a series of studies to determine if supplemental silicon has a place in greenhouse production.

Various concentrations of silicon were incorporated into a peat-based substrate using a potassium silicate powder KSiO3 ; rice hull ash, which is a natural by-product with high silicon content 20 percent SiO2 ; or five weekly substrate drenches of soluble potassium silicate KSiO3. Five weekly foliar applications of sodium silicate Na2SiO3 were also made until runoff Table 1.

The silicon concentration increased in all plant species that received supplemental silicon treatments. Table 1 shows the increase in silicon concentrations in helianthus leaf tissue along with the increase in stem diameter. The silicon concentration and deposition in plant tissue leaf versus stem and flower varied among species indicating that different species may take up different amounts of silicon. Also, silicon deposition varies in different plant tissues.

Depending on silicon source and rate, several plant traits improved when supplemental silicon was applied. Thick straight stems were evident with helianthus and zinnia.

In gerbera, flower diameter increased with sodium silicate foliar sprays. Early flowering occurred with optimum silicon treatments along with increased flower quality compared to untreated controls for each of the species.

Silicon rate recommendations One of the keys to being able to make silicon application recommendations is to establish sufficient substrate and plant silicon tissue levels. Guidelines for acceptable tissue and substrate levels are not yet established for floriculture crops. Results were similar to the first study. Plants exhibited increased flower and stem diameter and increased stem dry weight when they received supplemental silicon.

A positive correlation between leaf silicon concentration and saturated media extract soilless substrate samples was observed. The correlation indicates the potential for using leaf samples to establish acceptable silicon concentrations for soilless floriculture crop production. Leaf tissue values of silicon that correspond with optimum plant performance are listed in Table 2.

Reducing transpiration Other aspects of silicon fertilization that have gained interest are increased drought resistance and increased flower diameter. A potential cause for both of these benefits is the reduction in water lost by plants through evapotranspiration. Reduction of transpiration rate or increase of leaf resistance has been attributed to silicon.

Most silicon studies have used agricultural crops and the effects were accelerated with increased environmental stresses like drought and metal toxicity. Reduction of the transpiration rate could further benefit floriculture crop production. Under normal greenhouse conditions, leaf resistance reduction of transpiration increased with a high rate of sodium silicate foliar sprays. Further research The results of studies on the physical aspects related to silicon supplementation are encouraging.

We continue to explore optimum rates as high rates of many silicon sources can cause nutrient imbalances and a substrate pH shift.

However, by using moderate rates growth enhancements were still achieved and no issues with growth and development were observed. Because of the alkaline nature of many silicon supplements, it is not recommended to mix soluble forms with fertilizer solutions as the resulting high pH will likely cause precipitation of nutrients.

The rates of silicon supplements used in our studies did not have any dramatic or residual effects on substrate pH. However, if growing conditions exist with high alkaline water or high limestone rates in the substrate then issues could arise.

Todd Cavins is technical specialist, Sun Gro Horticulture, ; toddc sungro. In April the American Society of Landscape Architects released its Business Quarterly survey, which indicated that companies are reporting higher levels of billable hours, hiring and, most importantly, inquiries for new work. The organization is cautiously optimistic that this is a sign that the lack of new design and construction projects during the past two years may finally be coming to an end.

Inquiries for new work jumped This is an increase from Another good sign is that This is the highest number to report hiring plans since the third quarter of Sandy Munley, executive director of the Ohio Landscape Association, told the Columbus Dispatch that the industry prior to the recent economic downturn had been fortunate to experience years of steady growth. She said this recession was the first to really impact the industry.

She said many association members are very optimistic because they have seen an increase in inquiries. John Reiner, president of Oakland Nursery in Columbus, told the newspaper that the recession changed the consumer mindset about landscaping projects—the type and how much they were willing to spend. This year people are willing to invest more. Good news for growers, consumers, wildlife The economic downturn led to many consumers resorting to staycations which lead to investing in improvements to their living spaces, including outdoors.

Some homeowners are taking eco-friendliness to the extreme creating certified wildlife habitats. Currently the National Wildlife Federation has certified about , backyards.

USA Today reports that since enrollment in the year old backyard certification program has increased percent. NWF offers simple tips for attracting birds and butterflies and other wildlife regardless of whether a person lives in a city balcony apartment or on a country farm. One of these tips is to provide wildlife with a place that offers both food and shelter, including the use of a variety of plants to provide foliage, pollen, seed and berries.

For more: Ohio Landscape Association, ; www. National Wildlife Federation, ; www. Senecio vitalis Blue Chalk. Sedum makinoi Salsa Verde. Succulent varieties continue to increase in interest. Ball FloraPlant offers an expanding series of succulents in rooted and certified clean unrooted cuttings.

Senecio vitalis Blue Chalk has long, fleshy leaves along its stems. The drought-tolerant plant has low water needs and takes full sun. It has an upright habit reaching feet tall. Blue Chalk makes a dramatic centerpiece focal point in mixed containers or landscape designs. Sedum makinoi Salsa Verde is a drought-tolerant succulent with a mounded habit of flat, rounded, dark green leaves.

Its small, starlike flowers bloom in late summer and grow up to 6 inches tall, spreading inches wide. Salsa Verde can be planted in full sun, but tolerates partial shade. It is a great choice for green roofs. Unrooted cuttings should be stuck within hours of arrival. Plant them in a well-drained growing medium with a pH of 5. A protective fungicide application should be made within 12 hours of sticking. Once roots are visible, the medium should be kept moderately moist to help prevent stem rots, which can develop quickly when succulents are overwatered.

Begin fertilization with parts per million nitrogen when roots become visible. Increase the rate to ppm nitrogen as roots develop. Plants do not require pinching during propagation. They should be ready for transplanting days after sticking. Transplant rooted cuttings into a well-drained soilless medium with a pH of 5. To avoid stem stretch, grow plants at a light level of 6,, footcandles. During the first days, water the medium sparingly and never saturate.

Allow the medium to dry somewhat between waterings to avoid extended periods of saturation that can cause root problems. Apply a balanced fertilizer at ppm nitrogen at every watering to ensure maximum growth. A controlled-release fertilizer can be used to supplement a liquid feed program. Leach the medium periodically with clear water to prevent a build-up of salts. Pinching is not required when plants are grown in 4- to 4. Growth regulators are generally not needed.

Plants one cutting in 4-inch pots started from rooted cuttings finish in five to seven weeks; 6-inch pots one to two cuttings finish in seven to eight weeks and inch baskets three cuttings finish in weeks.

Starting with unrooted cuttings adds three to four weeks to the production schedule. Common insect and disease problems include fungus gnats, powdery mildew, Rhizoctonia, Pythium and Phytophthora.

For more: Ball Horticultural Co. TrixiLiner creates high-impact combos using well-proven Selecta varieties which deliver outstanding performance from bench to patio. Three different varieties per liner are combined, using one crop or mixing different crops. The liners are pinched and ready to grow for a quick finish. The cell format keeps shipping affordable, but is still large enough for a great energy-charged liner. All Trixi recipes are rigorously tested. Plants in the mixes are matched for color, habit, vigor and flower timing and all have very good to excellent heat tolerance.

It could enter roots through the apoplast the continuous system of cell walls, intercellular air spaces, and lumen of cells that have lost their cytoplasm e. Depending on silicon source and rate, several plant traits improved when supplemental silicon was applied. When comparing a field soil to a greenhouse substrate, there is a notable difference in the level of some nutrients. This article will help you better understand the role of sulfur in your plant culture. Role of Nickel in Plant Culture. Walter Gardens, Zeeland, Mich.

How does silicone affect plant growth

How does silicone affect plant growth

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Harm to minors, violence or threats, harassment or privacy invasion, impersonation or misrepresentation, fraud or phishing, show more. How do chemicals from plastic affect plant's growth? Report Abuse. Are you sure you want to delete this answer? Yes No. Answers Relevance. Rating Newest Oldest. Bisphenol A BPA is the main chemical people worry about leaching from plastic. It's an organic chemical with two phenol rings.

It could enter roots through the apoplast the continuous system of cell walls, intercellular air spaces, and lumen of cells that have lost their cytoplasm e. However, water and solutes are forced to cross into living cells by the Casparian strip at the endodermis. The Casparian strip is a band of radial cell walls in the endodermis that is impregnated with the wax-like, hydrophobic substance suberin. Suberin acts as a barrier to water and solute movement.

A better experimental design would have been to ask at what concentration does BPA effect plant growth. It actually might have increased plant growth because plants can break down BPA by a process called phytoremediation. When BPA containing Carbon was administrated to tobacco seedlings from their roots, radioactivity was incorporated in BPAG and three unidentified metabolites. These metabolites were accumulated in the leaves after 4 h exposure, indicating that tobacco seedlings absorbed BPA through their root systems, metabolized to its beta-glucoside and translocated the metabolites to their leaves.

In other words, they broke down the chemical and used the resulting pieces. However, you probably didn't have enough BPA present to show any differences one way or the other. Add a comment. Asker's rating. A better way yet to test this and it has already been done, would be to take two groups of plants, water one with regular tap water, and the other group with water that you put in a plastic baby bottle and then microwave. The surprise of the test was that these plants had larger leaves and grew faster than those with the tap water.

In the case of powdery mildew and phytophthora, disease attack was delayed in silicon treated zinnia, rose, sunflower, cucumber all powdery mildew and gerbera phytophthora , but after weeks both silicon treated and untreated plants had the same amount of disease. The modes of action for most of these benefits are uncertain and more research needs to verify these benefits. Since silicon is not considered an essential element, most plants will grow normally without it. However a few plants have shown deleterious effects if silicon is withheld.

As stated above, rice, wheat and other graminaceous crops exhibit reduced incidence of lodging when silicon is provided. Tomatoes can have abnormal flower development and, along with cucumber and strawberry, have reduced fruit set and possibly malformed fruit. Deficiency of silicon may also increase the potential for manganese, copper or iron toxicity in certain plants. Although uncommon, excess levels of silicon can possibly compete with uptake of other nutrients.

In gerbera and sunflower, high levels of silicon were found to deform flowers. In the above table, plants are categorized based on their tendency to accumulate silicon. The percentage of silicon that accumulates in the tissue is also listed under each plant category.

Silicon is not included in the formulation of most fertilizers, but many contain some as a contaminant.

Water sources typically provide silicon as well as the growing medium components and even dust contains useable silicon. Although each source of useable silicon may not provide significant levels for a crop, added together there may be enough silicon to negate the necessity to supplement with a separate silicon fertilizer, especially for non-accumulators. However if a silicon fertilizer is used, research shows that potassium silicate or calcium silicate can be injected at a constant feed rate of 50 ppm silicon or once per week at a rate of ppm.

Do not exceed ppm as it may cause phytotoxicity in some non-accumulators as was seen in gerbera and sunflower. Test the silicon fertilizer on a small percentage of several crops and do a side by side comparison to check for potential phytotoxicity as well as crop benefits. Like other fertilizer elements, silicon needs to be supplied throughout the crop cycle. Please note silicon fertilizers are very alkaline and greatly increase the pH of the stock solution. This reduces the solubility of micronutrients and silicon can form precipitates in the stock tank.

To err on the side of caution, it is best to have separate stock tanks for a silicon fertilizer and your standard fertilizer. The research does show benefits of using silicon with certain agricultural crops rice, wheat, sugarcane, etc. For the crops tested, there may be benefit of using silicon for intermediate and accumulator plants. For non-accumulators, there is conflicting information as to whether they benefit. For example, tomato, which is a non-accumulator, had increased flowering and fruit set when given additional silicon.

However, powdery mildew and nutrient toxicity studies showed there was no significant suppression of either in non-accumulators treated with silicon.

As stated above, crop inputs such as water, fertilizer and growing medium may supply sufficient silicon for non-accumulators and perhaps intermediate accumulators. If not, intermediate accumulators may benefit from additional supplementation with silicon.

Where to find our products. Role of Boron in Plant Culture. Do your plants have a deficiency or a toxicity related to boron? This article will help you better control this micronutrient. Read more. Role of Iron in Plant Culture. This article will help you better understand the role of iron in your plant culture. Role of Calcium in Plant Culture.

This article will help you better understand the role of calcium in your plant culture. Role of Manganese in Plant Culture. Do your plants have a deficiency or a toxicity related to manganese? Role of Magnesium in Plant Culture. Do your plants have a deficiency or a toxicity related to magnesium? This article will help you better control this secondary nutrient.

Role of Sodium and Chloride in Plant Culture. This article will help you better understand the role of sodium and chloride in your plant culture. Role of Sulfur in Plant Culture.

This article will help you better understand the role of sulfur in your plant culture.

Ferti-Facts:Silicon, Its role in plant growth

Si is not considered essential for plant growth and development, however, increasing evidence in the literature shows that this metalloid is beneficial to plants, especially under stress conditions. Indeed Si alleviates the toxic effects caused by abiotic stresses, e. Biogenic silica is also a deterrent against herbivores. Additionally, Si ameliorates the vigor of plants and improves their resistance to exogenous stresses. The protective role of Si was initially attributed to a physical barrier fortifying the cell wall e.

In this study the beneficial role of Si on plants will be discussed, by reviewing the available data in the literature. Emphasis will be given to the protective role of Si during a biotic stresses and in this context both priming and the effects of Si on endogenous phytohormones will be discussed. A whole section will be devoted to the use of silica SiO 2 nanoparticles, in the light of the interest that nanotechnology has for agriculture.

The study indeed provides perspectives on the use of Si to increase the yield of fiber crops and to improve the thermal stability and tensile strength of natural fibers. Silicon Si is considered non-essential or quasi-essential, Epstein and Bloom, for plant growth and development. Plants develop well in its absence, although in some cases, e.

When supplied to the growth medium as silicic acid, vide infra , plant vigor and resistance to a biotic stresses increase Azeem et al. Plants are classified into accumulators, excluders and intermediate type Mitani and Ma, , depending on the amount of biogenic silica found in their tissues. Tomato is among the excluders, while Urtica dioica i. In some plants the provision of Si OH 4 has a latent effect in the absence of an external stimulus Fauteux et al.

This has been observed in the Arabidopsis -powdery mildew pathosystem Fauteux et al. It should, however, be noted that in rice, Si OH 4 supplementation does trigger major changes, as it induces the upregulation and downregulation of 35 and transcription factors respectively Van Bockhaven et al. This difference may be in part due to the different cell wall types Yokoyama and Nishitani, and to the structural importance of Si in type II cell walls i.

By precipitating as SiO 2 and being incorporated into biological structures e. However, this passive role is too simplistic and does not explain why plants supplemented with Si are better suited to face exogenous stresses. Compelling evidence in the literature shows that specific cell wall components trigger SiO 2 precipitation reviewed by Guerriero et al.

In rice cell suspension culture, a hemicellulose-bound form of Si has been identified He et al. In horsetail, callose was shown to template biosilicification Law and Exley, The effects of Si under normal conditions are indeed latent, since, for the majority of the studies available, no major modifications, e.

Under control conditions Si probably activates the metabolic status of the plant, by making it more efficient in responding to exogenous stimuli. These data support the hypothesis that Si has a signaling role in plant cells. Si was indeed suggested to have a role as second messenger by binding to the hydroxyl groups of proteins involved in cell signaling, thereby partaking in the signal transduction Fauteux et al. It is important to mention that Si primes defense responses also in Si non-accumulators, i.

In this study, the authors also observed an increased expression of a negative regulator of the jasmonic acid signal, JAZ1 , together with a ubiquitin protein-ligase: the authors propose that JAZ1 helps in preventing the eventual damage caused by the stimulation of defense-related compounds and that the ubiquitin protein-ligase may degrade JAZ1.

In tomato challenged by R. These findings corroborate the role of Si in intracellular signaling and suggest its involvement in transcription too Ghareeb et al. Si assumes key functions in the plant response to numerous environmental constraints. Two major processes contributing to stress resistance are commonly considered i a physical and mechanical protection afforded by SiO 2 deposits and ii a biochemical response triggering metabolic changes. According to Liang et al. It also enhances UV tolerance due to the protective effect of Si deposition bodies on the leaf epidermis Goto et al.

Silicon influences water relations in drought-treated plants: it induces the formation of a silica cuticle double layer under the leaf epidermis which reduces water losses through cuticular transpiration Gong et al. Si also reduces stomatal conductance in relation to turgor loss of guard cells resulting from Si deposition and modified cell wall properties Zhu and Gong, Si improvement of drought resistance may also be ascribed to strong abilities to extract water from the soil as a consequence of Si-related promotion of root elongation Hattori et al.

Translocation of toxic ions from root to shoot is also reduced by Si supply Savvas and Ntatsi, In rice, Si alleviates NaCl toxicity by blocking the transpirational bypass flow through precipitation as SiO 2 in exodermis and endodermis Yeo et al.

In metal-polluted soil, Si may influence the bioavailability of toxic elements. The presence of soil sodium metasilicate or alkaline Si-containing material may induce a rise in the rhizospheric pH leading to a decrease in available heavy metal concentration in the soil Wu et al. Soluble silicate hydrolyzes to generate gelatinous metasilicic acid H 2 SiO 3 retaining heavy metals Gu et al. According to Kidd et al.

The formation of hydroxyl-aluminum silicate in the apoplast also contributes to Al detoxification Wang et al. Compartmentation of toxic ions is an important process in heavy metal tolerance. Si improves heavy metal retention by roots, with an obvious accumulation in the endodermis Keller et al. At the shoot level, accumulation of Mn was mainly observed in epidermis in response to Si treatment Doncheva et al.

Iwasaki and Matsumura reported that Si increases Mn accumulation in the leaf trichomes. Controversial data are available in the literature regarding co-precipitation of Si with heavy metals. Keller et al. He et al. Ma et al. Kim et al. Numerous studies reported that Si induces an improved behavior of heavy metal-treated plants in relation to regulation of antioxidant enzymes Adrees et al.

Si may thus be of paramount importance for triggering adapted plant response, but the precise molecular cues involved in the adaptative processes still need to be clearly identified. Si was reported to improve defense against biotic constraints occurring in the form of plant pathogens fungi, bacteria, and viruses or animals vertebrates and arthropod herbivores.

Silicon deposition increases abrasiveness of plant tissues and thus reduces palatability and digestibility for herbivores Massey and Hartley, Hartley et al. Using the same technique, Keeping et al.

Physical strength of the leaf resulting from Si accumulation may afford mechanical protection and thus lower the rate of infection as reported for Rhizoctonia solani Zhang et al. According to Cai et al. Reynolds et al. Indeed, soluble Si contributes to increase herbivore-induced plant volatiles to promote predator attraction by pest-infected plants.

Silicon impacts on endogenous phytohormones are commonly analyzed in response to stress conditions. In rice plants exposed to heavy metals, Si reduced endogenous concentration of jamonic acid JA and salicylic acid SA , while abscisic acid ABA first increased and then decreased after 14 days of treatment Kim et al. The effect of such phytohormonal changes on the expression of genes involved in heavy metal response still needs to be elucidated in Si-treated plants.

Resistance to biotrophic pathogens may be associated with SA whereas JA and ethylene ET are generally associated with resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. Fauteux et al. Similarly, Si-treated tomato plants exposed to R. Brunings et al. Conversely, Si improves resistance to the fungus Cochliobolus miyabeanus by interfering with the production of fungal ET Van Bockhaven et al. Data regarding the effect of Si on phytohormone metabolism in the absence of stress are still rare.

Markovich et al. Plant hormones interactions are responsible for a complex biochemical and physiological network: a deep understanding of Si influence on hormonal properties thus requires technical approaches allowing to quantify a wide range of hormonal compounds simultaneously, including minor conjugated forms.

The use of nanotechnology in agriculture is gaining importance because it contributes to develop new sustainable strategies.

Nanomaterials can for example be engineered to immobilize nutrients or to release them in a controlled manner in the soil Fraceto et al. Some papers in the literature have studied the effects of silica nanoparticles SNPs on plant physiology and we will here review some of them.

Very interestingly, this study also showed that MSNPs accumulated in the cell walls, therefore highlighting the existence of an affinity with cell wall components. The monodisperse nature of the MSNPs and their size, achieved via a fine-tuning of pH and surfactant concentration, were essential for the efficient uptake by plants: the entry takes place via the pores in the cell walls of the roots cells Sun et al.

Mesoporous SNPs were shown to boost the growth, total protein content and photosynthesis of lupin and wheat seedlings and to induce no changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes Sun et al. Interestingly in this study, the authors observed a shift of 14 cm -1 and 10 cm -1 in the Raman peaks of chlorophyll from wheat and lupin when isolated chloroplasts were incubated with MSNPs suggesting a change in the molecular structure of chlorophyll.

Silica nanoparticles were shown to protect wheat seedlings against UV-B stress by stimulating the antioxidant defense system Tripathi et al.

Silica nanoparticles also conferred protection via mitigation of oxidative stress in pea seedlings treated with Cr VI : the activities of enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase increased significantly in the presence of SNPs, while catalase, glutathione reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase were less inhibited by Cr VI in the presence of SNPs Tripathi et al. Nanostructured SiO 2 TMS was shown to be valuable in larch seedling production, because, when applied to the roots of 1-year-old seedlings via soaking for 6 h, it promoted lateral root growth, main root length and chlorophyll content Bao-shan et al.

The effect of SNPs was, however, shown to be dependent on the plant species, as in Bt-transgenic cotton they significantly decreased plant growth Le et al. SNPs toxicity may be linked to pH and nutrient adsorption problems. Indeed, in thale cress, SNPs phytotoxicity was triggered when the pH of the medium was not adjusted or silanol groups were not removed from the surface Slomberg and Schoenfisch, The alkaline pH pH 8 ca. Fiber crops like textile hemp Cannabis sativa L.

Given the positive effects of Si on plants, its use for fiber crop growth may provide an enhanced biomass yield and, therefore, an increased production of bast fibers.

The association of SiO 2 with the fiber cell walls may provide new properties, notably and increased durability. In this respect, it should be noted that hemp woody fibers, which contain SiO 2 and therefore bind well with lime, are already used to manufacture a lightweight concrete-like material used in eco-construction and known as hempcrete.

The few studies available on the specific Si impact on fiber crops confirm protection against abiotic stresses. In ramie [ Boehmeria nivea L. Bakry et al. Silicon accumulation in fiber crops is genetically controlled, as demonstrated for bamboos by Collin et al. Exogenous Si did not reduce Cu absorption by bamboos growing on contaminated solution, but reduced toxicity symptoms Collin et al.

Si also improved the growth of cotton exposed to Cd but, in this case, Si reduced Cd uptake and mitigated the adverse effect of this heavy metal by improving plant growth, biomass and photosynthetic parameters in stressed plants Farooq et al.

How does silicone affect plant growth