Geneology catholic nun-DNA and e-seopro.com exposes the lie of the Catholic Church's celibacy rule | Newcastle Herald

There was a small revival under Queen Mary but at her death the few nuns who wished to remain so went abroad. In a congregation of specifically English nuns was established in the Spanish Netherlands modern Belgium. Many more followed and for nearly two hundred years Catholic nuns lived out their lives in the Catholic countries of Europe. Many of their records have been published by the Catholic Record Society and the relevant volumes contain more detailed histories. All these orders were enclosed and the ladies within them lived lives of prayer.

Geneology catholic nun

Geneology catholic nun

Tags "Religious Names"MIsnamesnuns. The same religious order could include both Geneology catholic nun and "sisters", if some members took solemn vows and others simple vows. Leys is probably the best on the lives Geneology catholic nun ordinary Catholics over the penal period. Follow the link to find out more information about this project, but read below for details of a free event in Manchester. With TB she may have died in a sanatorium. Of catholiv, this does not help find the order, etc, in the first place. Surnames or topics. The New York Times.

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Mary of Nazareth and Calvary Community of St. Party Chat. Religious communities are divided into orders proper, in which members take solemn vows and congregations, whose members take simple vows. Random Genealogy Dates. To be considered as a nun, one must have the economic means to afford the convent dowry. All Professional Homemade. Harvard University Press. There was a small revival under Queen Mary but at her death the few nuns who wished to remain so went abroad. Main article: Anglican religious order. Searches Related to "catholic nun". Intwo years after the Fourth Whitier escorts Council had forbidden the establishment of new religious institutes, Pope Leo X established a religious Rule with simple vows for those tertiaries attached to existing communities who undertook to live a formal religious life. Geneology catholic nun department publishes the bi-annual Anglican Religious Lifea world directory of religious orders, and also maintains an official Anglican Communion website Geneology catholic nun religious orders.

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  • There was a small revival under Queen Mary but at her death the few nuns who wished to remain so went abroad.
  • A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery.
  • Offering exclusive content not available on Pornhub.

There was a small revival under Queen Mary but at her death the few nuns who wished to remain so went abroad. In a congregation of specifically English nuns was established in the Spanish Netherlands modern Belgium. Many more followed and for nearly two hundred years Catholic nuns lived out their lives in the Catholic countries of Europe.

Many of their records have been published by the Catholic Record Society and the relevant volumes contain more detailed histories. All these orders were enclosed and the ladies within them lived lives of prayer.

With the advent of the French Revolutionary Wars in most of these convents were expelled. Fortunately they were able to return to England where Catholicism was now legal. With the great expansion of Catholic numbers in the United Kingdom, and especially of poor urban Catholics from the s, many new Orders came to England from the continent to do active work — mostly teaching or nursing.

By there were over 90 religious orders of Catholic women working in the UK. In the early s the Catholic Family History Society circulated all the organisations of Catholic religious women working in England to ask about the records of individuals. The Catholic FHS has no further information about the women listed here. In many cases religious orders had a centralised structure and an archivist for the whole order was able to supply a copy of a complete list. The Carmelites and the Sisters of Mercy, however, had no such central structure.

Lists were received from particular houses but not from others. Note that England, Wales and Scotland, with which this index is concerned, formed a quite separate province from Ireland. This index contains a great many Irish women but they have all joined the English Province, not the Irish Province, of their Order.

The cut off date was entry in so very few women born after about will be found here. However a very few orders sent later material with permission to incorporate it. Further information on individuals may well be available from the Religious Order concerned. The address of the current religious superior will be found in the Catholic Directory. Most orders have archivists and many of those are members of the Catholic Archives Society. To search the index go to the Members Area.

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Peter Community of St. Margaret at East Grinstead. This was primarily a way of leading a pious life for the women of aristocratic families and generally disappeared in the modern age, except for the modern Lutheran convents of Germany. Monasteries and convents were deprived of their lands and possessions, and monastics were forced to either live a secular life on a pension or flee the country. The origin and rules of monastic life are common to both.

Geneology catholic nun

Geneology catholic nun

Geneology catholic nun

Geneology catholic nun. Were Your Ancestors From a “Shi*hole Country”? Ireland During the Great Famine

Originally it was thought they could not gain salvation because of the Five Hindrances , which said women could not attain Buddhahood until they changed into men. However, in , 12 women received full ordination as priests. In the Roman Catholic tradition, there are a large number of religious institutes of nuns and sisters the female equivalent of male monks or friars , each with its own charism or special character. Traditionally, nuns are members of enclosed religious orders and take solemn religious vows , while sisters do not live in the papal enclosure and formerly took vows called "simple vows".

As monastics , nuns living within an enclosure historically commit to recitation of the full Liturgy of the Hours throughout the day in church, usually in a solemn manner. They were formerly distinguished within the monastic community as "choir nuns", as opposed to lay sisters who performed upkeep of the monastery or errands outside the cloister.

This last task is still often entrusted to women, called "externs", who live in the monastery, but outside the enclosure. They were usually either oblates or members of the associated Third Order , often wearing a different habit or the standard woman's attire of the period.

In general, when a woman enters a religious order or monastery , she first undergoes a period of testing the life for six months to two years called a postulancy. If she, and the order, determine that she may have a vocation to the life, she receives the habit of the order usually with some modification, normally a white veil instead of black, to distinguish her from professed members and undertakes the novitiate , a period that lasts one to two years of living the life of the religious institute without yet taking vows.

In the branches of the Benedictine tradition, Benedictines, Cistercians , Camaldolese , and Trappists , among others nuns take vows of stability that is, to remain a member of a single monastic community , obedience to an abbess or prioress , and conversion of life which includes poverty and celibacy. In other traditions, such as the Poor Clares the Franciscan Order and the Dominican nuns , they take the threefold vows of poverty , chastity and obedience. Most orders of nuns not listed here follow one of these two patterns, with some Orders taking an additional vow related to the specific work or character of their Order for example, to undertake a certain style of devotion, praying for a specific intention or purpose.

Cloistered nuns Carmelites , for example observe "papal enclosure" [19] rules, and their nunneries typically have walls separating the nuns from the outside world. The nuns rarely leave except for medical necessity or occasionally for purposes related to their contemplative life though they may receive visitors in specially built parlors, often with either a grille or half-wall separating the nuns from visitors. They are usually self-sufficient, earning money by selling jams, candies or baked goods by mail order, or by making liturgical items such as vestments, candles, or hosts to be consecrated at Mass for Holy Communion.

They often undertake contemplative ministries — that is, a community of nuns is often associated with prayer for some particular good or supporting the missions of another order by prayer for instance, the Dominican nuns of Corpus Christi Monastery in the Bronx , New York, pray in support of the priests of the Archdiocese of New York.

Yet religious sisters can also perform this form of ministry, e. Paul in their media ministry. A canoness is a nun who corresponds to the male equivalent of canon , usually following the Rule of S. The origin and rules of monastic life are common to both. As with the canons, differences in the observance of rule gave rise to two types: the canoness regular , taking the traditional religious vows, and the secular canoness, who did not take vows and thus remained free to own property and leave to marry, should they choose.

This was primarily a way of leading a pious life for the women of aristocratic families and generally disappeared in the modern age, except for the modern Lutheran convents of Germany. A nun who is elected to head her religious house is termed an abbess if the house is an abbey, a prioress if it is a monastery, or more generically may be referred to as "Mother Superior" and styled "Reverend Mother".

The distinction between abbey and monastery has to do with the terms used by a particular order or by the level of independence of the religious house. Technically, a convent is any home of a community of sisters — or, indeed, of priests and brothers, though this term is rarely used in the United States.

The term "monastery" is often used by The Benedictine family to speak of the buildings and "convent" when referring to the community. Neither is gender specific. The traditional dress for women in religious communities consists of a tunic , which is tied around the waist with a cloth or leather belt. Over the tunic some nuns wear a scapular which is a garment of long wide piece of woolen cloth worn over the shoulders with an opening for the head.

Some wear a white wimple and a veil, the most significant and ancient aspect of the habit. Some Orders — such as the Dominicans — wear a large rosary on their belt. Benedictine abbesses wear a cross or crucifix on a chain around their neck.

After the Second Vatican Council , many religious institutes chose in their own regulations to no longer wear the traditional habit and did away with choosing a religious name. Catholic Church canon law states: "Religious are to wear the habit of the institute, made according to the norm of proper law, as a sign of their consecration and as a witness of poverty.

In February , clerical abuse of nuns, including sexual slavery , by Catholic priests has been acknowledged by the Pope. Although usage has varied throughout church history, typically "nun" Latin: monialis is used for women who have taken solemn vows, and "sister" Latin: soror is used for women who have taken simple vows. During the first millennium, nearly all religious communities of men and women were dedicated to prayer and contemplation.

These monasteries were built in remote locations or were separated from the world by means of a precinct wall. The mendicant orders , founded in the 13th century, combined a life of prayer and dedication to God with active works of preaching, hearing confessions, and service to the poor, and members of these orders are known as friars rather than monks. At that time, and into the 17th century, Church custom did not allow women to leave the cloister if they had taken religious vows.

Female members of the mendicant orders Dominican , Augustinian and Carmelite nuns and Poor Clares continued to observe the same enclosed life as members of the monastic orders. Originally, the vows taken by profession in any religious institute approved by the Holy See were classified as solemn.

In , two years after the Fourth Lateran Council had forbidden the establishment of new religious institutes, Pope Leo X established a religious Rule with simple vows for those tertiaries attached to existing communities who undertook to live a formal religious life.

In and , Pope Pius V rejected this class of congregation, but they continued to exist and even increased in number. After at first being merely tolerated, they afterwards obtained approval. Their number had increased dramatically in the upheavals brought by the French Revolution and subsequent Napoleonic invasions of other Catholic countries, depriving thousands of religious of the income that their communities held because of inheritances and forcing them to find a new way of living the religious life.

The Code of Canon Law reserved the term "nun" Latin: monialis for religious women who took solemn vows or who, while being allowed in some places to take simple vows, belonged to institutes whose vows were normally solemn. The same religious order could include both "nuns" and "sisters", if some members took solemn vows and others simple vows. The new legal code of the Catholic Church which was adopted in , however, remained silent on this matter. Whereas previously the code distinguished between orders and congregations, the code now refers simply to religious institutes.

Since the code of , the Vatican has addressed the renewal of the contemplative life of nuns. It produced the letter Verbi Sponsa in , [32] the apostolic constitution Vultum Dei quaerere in , and the instruction Cor Orans in [33] "which replaced the document Verbi Sponsa and attempted to bring forward the ideas regarding contemplative life born during the Second Vatican Council".

Nuns and sisters played a major role in American religion, education, nursing and social work since the early 19th century. There were very few rich American Catholics , and no aristocrats.

Religious orders were founded by entrepreneurial women who saw a need and an opportunity, and were staffed by devout women from poor families. The numbers grew rapidly, from sisters in 15 communities in , 50, in orders in , and , in different orders by Starting in , the sisters always outnumbered the priests and brothers.

Many women left their orders, and few new members were added. Nuns have played an important role in Canada, especially in heavily Catholic Quebec. Outside the home, Canadian women had few domains which they controlled.

Stimulated by the influence in France, the popular religiosity of the Counter Reformation , new orders for women began appearing in the seventeenth century. In the next three centuries women opened dozens of independent religious orders, funded in part by dowries provided by the parents of young nuns. The orders specialized in charitable works, including hospitals, orphanages, homes for unwed mothers , and schools.

Prior to women becoming nuns during early modern Spain, aspired nuns underwent a process. To be considered as a nun, one must have the economic means to afford the convent dowry. Once an aspiring nun has entered the convent and has the economic means to afford the dowry, she undergoes the process of apprenticeship known as the novitiate period.

This would be officially determined by a vote from the choir nuns. In the Eastern Orthodox Church there is no distinction between a monastery for women and one for men. In Greek , Russian , and other Eastern European languages, both domiciles are called "monasteries" and the ascetics who live therein are "monastics".

In English, however, it is acceptable to use the terms "nun" and "convent" for clarity and convenience. Orthodox monastics do not have distinct "orders" as in Western Christianity. Orthodox monks and nuns lead identical spiritual lives. The abbess is the spiritual leader of the convent and her authority is absolute no priest , bishop , or even patriarch can override an abbess within the walls of her monastery.

There has always been spiritual equality between men and women in the Orthodox Church Galatians Abbots and Abbesses rank in authority equal to bishops in many ways and were included in ecumenical councils. Orthodox monasteries are usually associated with a local synod of bishops by jurisdiction, but are otherwise self-governing. Abbesses hear confessions but do not absolve and dispense blessings on their charges, though they still require the services of a presbyter i.

Orthodox monastics, in general have little or no contact with the outside world, especially family. The pious family whose child decides to enter the monastic profession understands that their child will become "dead to the world" and therefore be unavailable for social visits. A modern resurgence of the early Christian Deaconess office for women began in Germany in the s and spread through Scandinavia, Britain and the United States, with some elements of the religious life, such as simple vows, and a daily obligation of prayer.

Lutherans were especially active, and within both Lutheranism and Anglicanism some Deaconesses formed religious communities, with community living, and the option of life vows in religion. A small movement still exists, and its legacy is seen in the names of numerous hospitals. The example of the Deaconess communities eventually led to the establishment of religious communities of monks and nuns within some Protestant traditions, [52] particularly those influenced by the more liturgical Protestant reformers such as Martin Luther rather than the more extreme reformers such as John Calvin.

This has allowed for communities of nuns or, in some cases, mixed communities of nuns and monks to be re-established in some Protestant traditions. Many of these are within the episcopal Lutheran tradition and the closeness of Lutheranism with Anglicanism its belief and practice has led to local arrangements of inter-Communion between the two traditions, such as the Porvoo Communion.

Monasteries and convents were deprived of their lands and possessions, and monastics were forced to either live a secular life on a pension or flee the country. Many Roman Catholic nuns went to France. Anglican religious orders are organizations of laity or clergy in the Anglican Communion who live under a common rule. The term "religious orders" is distinguished from Holy Orders the sacrament of ordination which bishops, priests, and deacons receive , though many communities do have ordained members.

The structure and function of religious orders in Anglicanism roughly parallels that which exists in Roman Catholicism. Religious communities are divided into orders proper, in which members take solemn vows and congregations, whose members take simple vows. With the rise of the Oxford Movement in Anglicanism in the early 19th century came interest in the revival of "religious life" in England. Between and , several religious orders for nuns were founded, among them the Community of St.

Mary at Wantage and the Community of St. Margaret at East Grinstead. Whilst there is no single central authority for all religious orders, and many member churches of the Anglican Communion have their own internal structures for recognising and regulating religious orders, some central functions are performed by the Anglican Religious Communities Department at Church House, Westminster , the headquarters of the Church of England's Church Commissioners , General Synod , Archbishops' Council , and National Society.

This department publishes the bi-annual Anglican Religious Life , a world directory of religious orders, and also maintains an official Anglican Communion website for religious orders.

Anglican Religious Life defines four categories of community. In the United States only , there is a clear distinction between "orders" and "communities", as the Episcopal Church has its own two-fold definition of "religious orders" equivalent to the first two groups above and "Christian communities" equivalent to the third group above. In some Anglican orders, there are sisters who have been ordained and can celebrate the Eucharist.

There are a plethora of religious orders within the Lutheran Churches , such as the Order of Lutheran Franciscans and Daughters of Mary. Nearly all active Lutheran orders are located in Europe. The Evangelical Sisterhood of Mary , an order of Lutheran nuns, operates a guesthouse for Holocaust survivors in Jerusalem.

Nuns play an important role in the public's image of religious symbolism. A list of notable works in which nuns play a major part ranges from A Time for Miracles , which is hagiography , to realistic accounts by Kathryn Hulme and Monica Baldwin , to the blatant nunsploitation of Sacred Flesh. These stories have been reproduced in both stage and film. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Nun disambiguation. Member of a religious community of women. Nuns in different parts of the world.

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Nuns and Convents - Genealogy Chat - Boards - Genes Reunited

A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery. In the Buddhist tradition, female monastics are known as Bhikkhuni , and take several additional vows compared to male monastics bhikkhus. Nuns are most common in Mahayana Buddhism , but have more recently become more prevalent in other traditions. Within Christianity, women religious, known as nuns or religious sisters , are found in Catholic , Eastern Orthodox , Anglican , and Lutheran traditions among others.

Though the terms are often used interchangeably, nuns historically take solemn vows and live a life of prayer and contemplation in a monastery or convent , while sisters take simple vows [2] and live an active vocation of prayer and charitable works in areas such as education and healthcare.

Examples include the monastic Order of Saint Clare founded in in the Franciscan tradition, or the Missionaries of Charity founded in by Mother Teresa to care for people living in grave poverty. All Buddhist traditions have nuns, although their status is different among Buddhist countries. The Buddha is reported to have allowed women into the sangha only with great reluctance, predicting that the move would lead to Buddhism's collapse after years, rather than the 1, years it would have enjoyed otherwise.

This prophecy occurs only once in the Canon and is the only prophecy involving time in the Canon, leading some to suspect that it is a late addition. The important vows are the same, however. As with monks, there is quite a lot of variation in nuns' dress and social conventions between Buddhist cultures in Asia.

Chinese nuns possess the full bhikkuni ordination, Tibetan nuns do not. In Theravada countries it is generally believed that the full ordination lineage of bhikkunis died out, though in many places they wear the "saffron" colored robes, observing only ten precepts like novices.

In Thailand , a country which never had a tradition of fully ordained nuns bhikkhuni , there developed a separate order of non-ordained female renunciates called mae ji. However, some of them have played an important role in dhamma-practitioners' community. Chatsumarn Kabilsingh, established a controversial monastery for the training of Buddhist nuns in Thailand.

The relatively active roles of Taiwanese nuns were noted by some studies. Researcher Charles Brewer Jones estimates that from to , when the Buddhist Association of the ROC organized public ordination, female applicants outnumbered males by about three to one. He adds:. Cheng reviewed earlier studies which suggest that Taiwan's Zhaijiao tradition has a history of more female participation, and that the economic growth and loosening of family restriction have allowed more women to become nuns.

Based on studies of the Luminary order, Cheng concluded that the monastic order in Taiwan was still young and gave nuns more room for development, and more mobile believers helped the order. Gelongma ordination requires the presence of ten fully ordained people keeping exactly the same vows. Because ten nuns are required to ordain a new one, the effort to establish the Dharmaguptaka bhikkhu tradition has taken a long time. It is permissible for a Tibetan nun to receive bhikkhuni ordination from another living tradition, e.

Based on this, Western nuns ordained in Tibetan tradition, like Thubten Chodron , took full ordination in another tradition. The clothes of the nuns in Tibet are basically the same as those of monks, but there are differences between novice and gelong robes.

Hokke-ji in was established by the consort of the Emperor. It took charge of provincial convents, performed ceremonies for the protection of the state, and became the site of pilgrimages. Aristocratic Japanese women often became Buddhist nuns in the premodern period. Originally it was thought they could not gain salvation because of the Five Hindrances , which said women could not attain Buddhahood until they changed into men.

However, in , 12 women received full ordination as priests. In the Roman Catholic tradition, there are a large number of religious institutes of nuns and sisters the female equivalent of male monks or friars , each with its own charism or special character. Traditionally, nuns are members of enclosed religious orders and take solemn religious vows , while sisters do not live in the papal enclosure and formerly took vows called "simple vows".

As monastics , nuns living within an enclosure historically commit to recitation of the full Liturgy of the Hours throughout the day in church, usually in a solemn manner.

They were formerly distinguished within the monastic community as "choir nuns", as opposed to lay sisters who performed upkeep of the monastery or errands outside the cloister. This last task is still often entrusted to women, called "externs", who live in the monastery, but outside the enclosure. They were usually either oblates or members of the associated Third Order , often wearing a different habit or the standard woman's attire of the period.

In general, when a woman enters a religious order or monastery , she first undergoes a period of testing the life for six months to two years called a postulancy. If she, and the order, determine that she may have a vocation to the life, she receives the habit of the order usually with some modification, normally a white veil instead of black, to distinguish her from professed members and undertakes the novitiate , a period that lasts one to two years of living the life of the religious institute without yet taking vows.

In the branches of the Benedictine tradition, Benedictines, Cistercians , Camaldolese , and Trappists , among others nuns take vows of stability that is, to remain a member of a single monastic community , obedience to an abbess or prioress , and conversion of life which includes poverty and celibacy. In other traditions, such as the Poor Clares the Franciscan Order and the Dominican nuns , they take the threefold vows of poverty , chastity and obedience.

Most orders of nuns not listed here follow one of these two patterns, with some Orders taking an additional vow related to the specific work or character of their Order for example, to undertake a certain style of devotion, praying for a specific intention or purpose.

Cloistered nuns Carmelites , for example observe "papal enclosure" [19] rules, and their nunneries typically have walls separating the nuns from the outside world. The nuns rarely leave except for medical necessity or occasionally for purposes related to their contemplative life though they may receive visitors in specially built parlors, often with either a grille or half-wall separating the nuns from visitors.

They are usually self-sufficient, earning money by selling jams, candies or baked goods by mail order, or by making liturgical items such as vestments, candles, or hosts to be consecrated at Mass for Holy Communion. They often undertake contemplative ministries — that is, a community of nuns is often associated with prayer for some particular good or supporting the missions of another order by prayer for instance, the Dominican nuns of Corpus Christi Monastery in the Bronx , New York, pray in support of the priests of the Archdiocese of New York.

Yet religious sisters can also perform this form of ministry, e. Paul in their media ministry. A canoness is a nun who corresponds to the male equivalent of canon , usually following the Rule of S. The origin and rules of monastic life are common to both. As with the canons, differences in the observance of rule gave rise to two types: the canoness regular , taking the traditional religious vows, and the secular canoness, who did not take vows and thus remained free to own property and leave to marry, should they choose.

This was primarily a way of leading a pious life for the women of aristocratic families and generally disappeared in the modern age, except for the modern Lutheran convents of Germany. A nun who is elected to head her religious house is termed an abbess if the house is an abbey, a prioress if it is a monastery, or more generically may be referred to as "Mother Superior" and styled "Reverend Mother".

The distinction between abbey and monastery has to do with the terms used by a particular order or by the level of independence of the religious house. Technically, a convent is any home of a community of sisters — or, indeed, of priests and brothers, though this term is rarely used in the United States.

The term "monastery" is often used by The Benedictine family to speak of the buildings and "convent" when referring to the community. Neither is gender specific. The traditional dress for women in religious communities consists of a tunic , which is tied around the waist with a cloth or leather belt. Over the tunic some nuns wear a scapular which is a garment of long wide piece of woolen cloth worn over the shoulders with an opening for the head.

Some wear a white wimple and a veil, the most significant and ancient aspect of the habit. Some Orders — such as the Dominicans — wear a large rosary on their belt.

Benedictine abbesses wear a cross or crucifix on a chain around their neck. After the Second Vatican Council , many religious institutes chose in their own regulations to no longer wear the traditional habit and did away with choosing a religious name. Catholic Church canon law states: "Religious are to wear the habit of the institute, made according to the norm of proper law, as a sign of their consecration and as a witness of poverty. In February , clerical abuse of nuns, including sexual slavery , by Catholic priests has been acknowledged by the Pope.

Although usage has varied throughout church history, typically "nun" Latin: monialis is used for women who have taken solemn vows, and "sister" Latin: soror is used for women who have taken simple vows. During the first millennium, nearly all religious communities of men and women were dedicated to prayer and contemplation. These monasteries were built in remote locations or were separated from the world by means of a precinct wall. The mendicant orders , founded in the 13th century, combined a life of prayer and dedication to God with active works of preaching, hearing confessions, and service to the poor, and members of these orders are known as friars rather than monks.

At that time, and into the 17th century, Church custom did not allow women to leave the cloister if they had taken religious vows. Female members of the mendicant orders Dominican , Augustinian and Carmelite nuns and Poor Clares continued to observe the same enclosed life as members of the monastic orders.

Originally, the vows taken by profession in any religious institute approved by the Holy See were classified as solemn. In , two years after the Fourth Lateran Council had forbidden the establishment of new religious institutes, Pope Leo X established a religious Rule with simple vows for those tertiaries attached to existing communities who undertook to live a formal religious life.

In and , Pope Pius V rejected this class of congregation, but they continued to exist and even increased in number. After at first being merely tolerated, they afterwards obtained approval. Their number had increased dramatically in the upheavals brought by the French Revolution and subsequent Napoleonic invasions of other Catholic countries, depriving thousands of religious of the income that their communities held because of inheritances and forcing them to find a new way of living the religious life.

The Code of Canon Law reserved the term "nun" Latin: monialis for religious women who took solemn vows or who, while being allowed in some places to take simple vows, belonged to institutes whose vows were normally solemn.

The same religious order could include both "nuns" and "sisters", if some members took solemn vows and others simple vows. The new legal code of the Catholic Church which was adopted in , however, remained silent on this matter. Whereas previously the code distinguished between orders and congregations, the code now refers simply to religious institutes. Since the code of , the Vatican has addressed the renewal of the contemplative life of nuns. It produced the letter Verbi Sponsa in , [32] the apostolic constitution Vultum Dei quaerere in , and the instruction Cor Orans in [33] "which replaced the document Verbi Sponsa and attempted to bring forward the ideas regarding contemplative life born during the Second Vatican Council".

Nuns and sisters played a major role in American religion, education, nursing and social work since the early 19th century. There were very few rich American Catholics , and no aristocrats. Religious orders were founded by entrepreneurial women who saw a need and an opportunity, and were staffed by devout women from poor families.

The numbers grew rapidly, from sisters in 15 communities in , 50, in orders in , and , in different orders by Starting in , the sisters always outnumbered the priests and brothers. Many women left their orders, and few new members were added. Nuns have played an important role in Canada, especially in heavily Catholic Quebec. Outside the home, Canadian women had few domains which they controlled. Stimulated by the influence in France, the popular religiosity of the Counter Reformation , new orders for women began appearing in the seventeenth century.

In the next three centuries women opened dozens of independent religious orders, funded in part by dowries provided by the parents of young nuns. The orders specialized in charitable works, including hospitals, orphanages, homes for unwed mothers , and schools.

Prior to women becoming nuns during early modern Spain, aspired nuns underwent a process. To be considered as a nun, one must have the economic means to afford the convent dowry. Once an aspiring nun has entered the convent and has the economic means to afford the dowry, she undergoes the process of apprenticeship known as the novitiate period. This would be officially determined by a vote from the choir nuns.

In the Eastern Orthodox Church there is no distinction between a monastery for women and one for men. In Greek , Russian , and other Eastern European languages, both domiciles are called "monasteries" and the ascetics who live therein are "monastics".

Geneology catholic nun