The Duluth Wheel domestic-violence re-education programme a revised methodology for generic use. There is never an excuse for any act of violence, by anyone to anyone: yet violence exists. Strictly speaking, violence — or any criminal behaviour — is a choice. The Duluth Wheel. Need for revision.
Satel states: "In at least a dozen states, including Massachusetts, Colorado, Criticisms of the duluth model, Washington, and Texas, state guidelines effectively preclude any treatment other than feminist therapy for domestic batterers. A review of the effectiveness of batterers intervention programs BIP primarily Duluth Model found that "there is no solid empirical evidence for either the effectiveness or relative superiority of any of the current group interventions," and that "the more rigorous the methodology of evaluation studies, the less encouraging their findings. What's wrong with it? We wanted a way to describe battering for victims, offenders, and practitioners in the criminal justice system and the Criticisms of the duluth model public. Their aim was to provide a methodology for 're-education' of perpetrators of domestic violence, to Christina aguchi asian blows n toes them in changing their behaviour to prevent further violence. It's described in detail in Pence, E. Subscribe to: Post Comments Atom. Satel uses the case of "Don" for an example.
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This is illustrated by the "Power and Control Wheel," a graphic typically displayed as a poster in participating locations. He never hit back -- and he never filed charges. The approach is to examine the role of each party, so that both may be empowered to make decisions in their own lives. Views Read Edit View history. This is the point where Womans cum who batter must decide whether to try and maintain the status quo or take the necessary and often difficult steps to change. Is the Duluth Model effective? Coordinated community response to domestic assault cases: A guide for policy development. Here the dulluth respond directly Criticisms of the duluth model misinformation generated by 1 a study from the National Institute modfl Justice of the U. Neighbors call because the violence is alarming. There is an implicit refusal - and in practice generally an explicit refusal thee to acknowledge Criticisms of the duluth model violence done to men, especially by women. Homicide trends in the U.
Blame and shame, not help.
- More Information.
- The Duluth Model or Domestic Abuse Intervention Project is a program developed to reduce domestic violence against women.
- Yes, men who batter can change.
- Domestic violence is a people problem, not a gender issue.
- Nowhere in their research are there claims that other treatment methodologies work better than the Duluth approach.
Blame and shame, not help. Ideology, not science. It ignores drinking, drugs and pathology. Only one cause, only one solution. There's no real evidence it works. It ignores domestic violence by women. Women who need help can't get it. It's taught by "wounded healers. Batterer treatment programs around the world are adopting the "Duluth model," perhaps the most widespread of the male-patriarchy batterers' programs, with trainings in hundreds of cities across the country and a recent series of Marine Corps contracts.
It promotes a gender-polarizing view that battering is a conscious strategy by men to assert male dominance over women. What is the Duluth Model? It's described in detail in Pence, E. The "Power and Control Wheel," central to the model, "depicts the primary abusive behaviors experienced by women living with men who batter.
It's about blaming and shaming men, more than giving them the insights and support to help them stop their abusive behavior. The Duluth Model preaches that men who batter don't have a personal problem, but are simply reflecting "a culture that teaches men to dominate. Is wife-beating an accepted cultural norm?
Think about it: do you know any man who thinks that beating your wife is "normal" or "OK"? Psychologist Donald G. Dutton, author of five books about spousal abuse by men and expert witness in the O. Simpson trial, says, "Men who have been convicted of wife assault do not generally feel that what they did was acceptable. Instead they feel guilty, deny and minimize the violence, and try to exculpate themselves in the manner of one whose actions are unacceptable to oneself.
The Duluth Model is a "blame and shame" behavior modification approach, focusing only on the perpetrator's role.
This approach is used often with prisoners. Rule infractions result in punishment, and "good behavior" absence of rule-breaking results in early release. A different approach sees anger and violence as part of a "dance" between two people in an intimate relationship.
The approach is to examine the role of each party, so that both may be empowered to make decisions in their own lives. This model is used in many successful prison rehabilitation programs and in AA, which holds people accountable for their lives without "blaming and shaming. The authors of the book on the model make no bones about it: The tactics used by batterers reflect the tactics used by many groups or individuals in positions of power. Each of the tactics depicted on the Power and Control Wheel are typical of behaviors used by groups of people who dominate others.
They are the tactics employed to sustain racism, ageism, classism, heterosexism, anti-Semitism, and many other forms of group domination. Men in particular are taught these tactics in both their families of origin and through their experiences in a culture that teaches men to dominate. We use gender-specific terms not only because the curriculum is for men who batter, but because battering is not a gender-neutral issue.
The model was developed, not by a team of psychologists and research scientists, but in consultation with "a small group of activists in the battered women's movement," and "more than battered women in Duluth. They believed that men had the right to dominate and control women and that women were by their very nature subservient to men. The model rejects treatment through insight models, family systems theory or cognitive-behavioral models in favor of what supporters call a "sociopolitical model" and San Jose therapist Eric Towle calls a "radical feminist re-education camp," where battery is equated with masculinity.
The goal of sociopolitical therapy is to "challenge sexist expectations and controlling behaviors that often inhibit men and motivate them to learn to apply newly learned skills in a consistently non-controlling manner. Psychologist Dutton wrote an article outlining all the evidence feminist researchers and proponents of the model had to overlook , because it contradicted their ideological paradigm.
As he put it, "Paradigms direct research, but they also serve to deflect critical analysis of the paradigms' own central tenets through diverting attention from contradictory data. A form of 'groupthink' ensues whereby dissent is stifled by directing attention from potential contradictory information. What evidence is overlooked? For starters, the fact that most men are not violent to their wives or lovers. It ignores drinking, drugs, Borderline Personality Disorder and other serious psychological problems.
As Cathy Young, author of Ceasefire: Why Women and Men Must Join Forces to Achieve True Equality states, "Dutton and other researchers have found that wife-beating is far more strongly associated with 'borderline personality disorder' characterized by proclivity for intense relationships, insecurity, and rage than with patriarchal attitudes; drugs and alcohol are major factors as well.
Dutton's concern is echoed by Paul T. Mason, M. A focus on "male oppression" must, be definition, overlook this important contributor to domestic violence.
Yale psychiatrist Sally L. Satel uses the case of "Don" for an example. Feminist theory downplays the relevance of alcohol abuse, and as a particularly foolish result in Don's program, failed to make sobriety a condition of the treatment for domestic batterers. This approach rejects joint therapy in all cases, even when the woman feels safe and wants to keep the marriage together.
San Diego judge William Cannon says, "It's ridiculous. We treat women as brainless individuals who are unable to make choices. Washington state specifically prohibits joint therapy, even in conjunction with the Duluth Model. One Bellevue therapist almost lost his license for merely proposing joint therapy to another therapist.
Satel states: "In at least a dozen states, including Massachusetts, Colorado, Florida, Washington, and Texas, state guidelines effectively preclude any treatment other than feminist therapy for domestic batterers.
Satel points out that these policies would outlaw, for instance, the kind of help that saved the decade-long marriage of a midwestern couple we'll call 'Steve and Lois M.
He agreed, and the couple saw Eve Lipchik, a Milwaukee, Wisconsin expert in family therapy. Satel asserts, "Many advocates are also apparently so blinded by ideology that they are unable to draw distinctions between types of abusers. Some men, for example, are first-time offenders, others are brutal recidivists, others attack rarely but harshly, others frequently but less severely, and many are alcoholics.
Such a heterogeneous population cannot be treated with a one-size-fits-all approach. The best we have is one-month follow-ups.
Satel points out that women are advised to leave their husbands; the programs have no faith that the indoctrination they offer actually works. The U. National Violence Against Women survey estimates that each year 1. Dutton points out that lesbian relationships were significantly more violent than gay relationships; rates of verbal, physical and sexual abuse were all significantly higher in lesbian relationships than in heterosexual relationships; and in one sample of women, All of these findings refute the notion that family violence is caused by male control of women.
They are ignored by domestic violence "experts" and the media because they contradict the ideological paradigm of these programs, that family violence is men's efforts to control women. One result is that there is virtually no public education, victim outreach and education, or help for battered men.
Is domestic vioilence by women in self-defense? Martin Fiebert of the University of California at Long Beach surveyed almost 1, women, of whom had initiated an assault on their partner. The most common reasons? A Detroit News special report on battered husbands provides a dramatic example.
Cathy Young, author of Ceasefire , quotes a letter from a shelter that gives as an example of assault by the husband , "In an argument, 'Mrs. When we say women can't possibly be violent, she must have done it for some reason, we are in essence denying women services.
And programs that preach that male oppression is at the heart of domestic violence have nothing to offer to women who batter. Shelter staffs and perpetrator treatment programs are often dominated by women who have been victims themselves.
Maurice Oates, who co-founded a highly successful Native-based Circle of Harmony Healing Society in Terrace, British Columbia that works with couples on a voluntary basis, says: "We don't really give a damn about what white people think. All participants are considered equal and not adversaries. All our programs avoid sexual bias. Local gender feminists were telling us it would be a disaster.
We call those people the 'wounded healers' because they try to help people, but they have not yet dealt with their own pain and agony. It's a gender-polarizing approach that only serves to perpetrate the "battle of the sexes.
But it has also hurt many of the women who are its intended beneficiaries. Part of the problem is the one-size-fits-all approach to domestic violence. For many couples in violent relationships, particularly those involved in mutual violence, joint counseling offers the best solution.
But if they have come to the attention of the authorities, it's one form of counseling to which they are unlikely to be referred. Couples therapy is vehemently opposed by battered women's advocates--ostensibly out of concern for women's safety, but also because of the implication that both partners must change their behavior. Yale psychiatrist Sally Satel states: Like so many projects of the feminist agenda, the battered women's movement has outlived its useful beginnings, which was to help women leave violent relationships and persuade the legal system to take domestic abuse more seriously.
Now they have brought us to a point at which a single complaint touches off an irreversible cascade of useless and often destructive legal and therapeutic events. This could well have a chilling effect upon victims of real violence, who may be reluctant to file police reports or to seek help if it subjects them to further battery from the authorities.
And it certainly won't help violent men if they emerge from so-called treatment programs no more enlightened but certainly more angry, more resentful, and as dangerous as ever.
My thanks to Erin Pizzey, founder of the first shelter for battered women and author of Prone to Violence , the controversial first book to explore violence in women. She challenged me to write this piece, to use in speaking out against attempts to implement this model in the UK.
Further resources: Yale psychiatrist Sally L. Satel wrote an excellent exposition "It's Always His Fault. Summer - Number University of British Columbia psychologist Donald G. The full article is there, as well. The concluding quote from Cathy Young is from her excellent article Domestic Violations from the April, issue of Reason magazine.
Rennison, C. Laws were passed that specifically forbade any couples intervention for men accused. In Shepherd, Melanie; Pence, Ellen eds. Paulo Freire has heavily influenced our work. Offenders have diagnosable psychological problems or personality disorders. We acknowledge that women use aggression and violence in intimate relationships and not always in self-defense. Both participants and facilitators are challenged to question the beliefs we each carry about ourselves, our partners, and our world.
Criticisms of the duluth model. Navigation menu
The underpinnings of the Duluth curriculum do come from a historical analysis. When Europeans came to this continent, they brought religion, laws, and economic systems that institutionalized the status of women as the property of men through marriage. From the church to the state, there was not only acceptance of male supremacy, but also an expectation that husbands would maintain the family order by controlling their wives.
Various indiscretions committed by wives were offenses to be punished by husbands. This system of male dominance like any social structure where one group oppresses another was perpetuated by: a a belief in the primacy of men over women; b institutional rules requiring the submission of women to men; c the objectification of women which made violence acceptable; and d the right of men to use violence to punish with impunity Dobash and Dobash The status quo of male domination remained fully intact until the early twentieth century when state legislatures began to make wife beating unlawful.
Do all men who batter want to dominate women? This is a complicated question. These men use violence to control their partners because they can and violence works.
Violence ends arguments. In the short term, a woman may be safer if she stays with her partner while she plans for her future safety. We make these referrals only when counselors, advocates, and court personnel are relatively sure that the violence has stopped, the victim is not being coerced or intimidated, and she is not fearful of her partner.
What we continue to emphasize is that teaching a batterer to control his anger will not stop the violence if the intent of the batterer is to control or dominate a partner. Defenders of anger management programs believe that teaching batterers to recognize what triggers their anger will help reduce violent outbursts.
We believe anger management skills have limited utility in groups for men who batter. His partner will rightly wonder whether he will be calm when he returns or will have worked himself into a rage and violently attack her. The group he characterized as pit bulls, men insisting on total control in their marriages, had batterers as fathers and usually confined their violence to their relationship.
The Duluth Curriculum Ignores Psychological Problems Do we have the resources to implement comprehensive assessments to determine what treatment should be recommended for every batterer who enters the criminal justice system? Are these assessment models accurate enough to justify their cost? Do we have the resources to provide individual psychotherapy for offenders with mental health problems? And should we? Some court-ordered domestic assault offenders do have psychological problems. In Duluth, the probation department, court, and DAIP attempt to flag those with serious mental health problems and refer them for psychological evaluations.
Less than 10 percent of court-ordered men are screened out of the program because of mental illness. Many people in our society could be diagnosed with personality disorders. Many people who commit crimes have personality disorders. Do we ignore the criminal behavior of batterers by not arresting them because of their personality disorders?
In offender groups, do we not challenge the thinking of men who batter who are violent and controlling because they have an attachment disorder? Do we not ask men who experienced brain trauma as children to examine their beliefs about male entitlement? Finally, there is no evidence that a Duluth-based curriculum has a negative impact on offenders who have attachment disorder, depression, chemical dependency problems, or are antisocial.
Such alternative approaches include psychotherapy, recommended for offenders who experience mental illness or brain trauma; marriage counseling, suggested by practitioners who believe that both parties share responsibility for the violence; and restorative justice, championed by those who believe that having victims confront their abuser is healing. Others argue that treatment is simply ineffective and should be discontinued in favor of community service or probation.
Some hypotheses about the underlying causes of domestic violence include: 1. Anger and poor impulse control trigger violent responses to relationship problems. Violence is a manifestation of a dysfunctional relationship.
Offenders have diagnosable psychological problems or personality disorders. Men are socialized to accept violence as a means to resolve conflicts. A culture steeped in sexism provides a blueprint for men to use violence to control their intimate partners.
Each of these theories will result in different interventions and treatment approaches by practitioners charged with trying to stop the violence. Before adopting any new approach, practitioners should seriously assess how effectively a proposed intervention or treatment model enhances or diminishes the safety of victims. The Duluth Model is not a treatment program, but rather a coordinated response by community institutions that holds offenders accountable for their behavior while ensuring that victims are protected from ongoing violence.
The core elements of the Duluth Model are: 1. Written policies that centralize victim safety and offender accountability 2. Practices that link intervening practitioners and agencies together 3.
An entity that tracks and monitors cases and assesses data 4. An interagency process that brings practitioners together to dialogue and resolve problems 5. A central role in the process for victim advocates, shelters, and battered women 6.
A shared philosophy about domestic violence 7. A system that shifts responsibility for victim safety from the victim to the system In , the Duluth Police Department adopted one of the first mandatory arrest policies in the country, which resulted in an exponential increase in offenders entering the criminal justice system.
The DAIP has adhered to this philosophy since its inception. Others have criticized the theoretical underpinning of the model, saying that its feminist political ideology alleges that all men want to dominate women.
Let us set the record straight. There is a reason that the curriculum Creating a Process of Change for Men Who Batter is not only the most widely used batterer intervention model in this country, but has also been adapted internationally for use in many different cultures Pence and Paymar The Duluth curriculum is an educational approach. The philosophical core of the model is the belief that men who batter use physical and sexual violence and other abusive tactics to control their partners.
Men who batter use violence to stop arguments, to stop their partners from doing something, and to punish them for noncompliance. The authors of the curriculum borrowed from the work of the late Brazilian educator Paulo Freire. Freire worked with impoverished, illiterate people in South America. He developed an education model that relies on dialogue and critical thinking rather than traditional learning banking of knowledge in which the teacher feeds the student information Freire We adapted these proven educational methods in our work with court-mandated offenders.
A central assumption in the Duluth curriculum is that nature and culture are separate. Men are cultural beings who can change the way they use violence in relationships because beliefs about male dominance and the use of violence to control are cultural, not innate. Facilitators engage men who batter in a dialogue about their beliefs. Through curriculum exercises, group participants are immersed in critical thinking and self-reflection.
Some of the men in our groups begin to understand the impact that their violence has had on their partners, children, and themselves. A key teaching tool is the control log that helps group members analyze their abusive actions by recognizing that their behavior is intentional and inextricably tied to their beliefs.
It further allows men in the groups to recognize that, while in the short run their violence gets them what they want, it is ultimately self-defeating. Like a prisoner of war, a victim of repeated assaults and humiliation will resist, sabotage, and if possible, escape or will acquiesce and adapt in order to survive.
Either option produces a relationship devoid of intimacy and love. This is the point where men who batter must decide whether to try and maintain the status quo or take the necessary and often difficult steps to change. Group facilitators teach skills through role-playing and other exercises so that participants become aware of alternatives to violence.
This is not a psychotherapy-based curriculum and thus does not require facilitators to have extensive mental health qualifications, although some mental health practitioners have successfully incorporated therapeutic techniques that address personality disorders into the Duluth curriculum structure Ganley Conclusion and Questions to Consider We believe anyone seeking to implement an effective response to domestic assault offenders needs to critically examine the available research and choose approaches that address domestic violence as a social problem rather than an individual dysfunction.
We do believe that different offenders may benefit from different treatments before, during, and after attending classes or groups using the Duluth curriculum. Taking a public policy perspective, we must ask hard questions and be open to evaluation and critique, but not ignore the historical roots of violence against women as if something has magically happened in the last generation to make all domestic violence gender neutral.
The advocates were justified in their concern that shelters and advocacy programs would be forced to Domestic Abuse Intervention Programs, East Superior Street, Duluth, MN , www. All stakeholders should be open to having a frank and ongoing dialogue about the future of batterer intervention programs and the ways law enforcement, the courts, and other community institutions intervene in domestic violence cases.
Despite our differences, we believe common ground can be found in our work. But we remain unshakable in our belief that the safety of victims of violence should be the core principle that guides our work.
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Context for specific episodes of marital violence: Gender and severity of violence differences. Journal of Family Violence.
Dobash, R. Violence against wives. The Free Press. Changing violent men. Sage Publications. Dutton, D. Transforming a flawed policy: A call to revive psychology and science in domestic violence research and practice.
Aggression and Violent Behavior. Ehrensaft, M. Moffit, and A. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Freire, P. Pedagogy of the oppressed. Continuum Publishing Co. Learning to question. Frederick, L. Ganley, Anne.
Gondolf, E. Batterer intervention systems: Issues, outcomes and recommendations. Questioning the Broward experiment. Domestic Violence Report. Evaluating batterer counseling programs: A difficult task showing some effects and implications. Guardian London Offenders' anger control classes help make some more dangerous.
April Jackson, S. Feder, R. David, R. Davis, C. Maxwell, and G. Batterer intervention programs: Where do we go from here? National Institute of Justice. Hamberger, L. Violence Against Women. Kimmel, M. Gender symmetry in domestic violence: A substantive and methodological research review. Langhinrichsen-Rohling, et al.
Violent marriages: Gender differences in levels of current and past abuse. Maiuro, R. Cahn, P. Vitaliano , B. Wagner, and J. Anger, hostility, and depression in domestically violent versus generally assaultive men and nonviolent control subjects.
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Mills, L. Insult to injury: Rethinking our responses to intimate abuse. Princeton University Press. Moffit, T. Caspi, M. Rutter, and P. Sex differences in antisocial behavior. Cambridge University Press. Phelan, M. Hamberger, C. Guse, S. Edwards, S. Walczak, and A. Springer Publishing Co. Pence, E. Coordinated community response to domestic assault cases: A guide for policy development.
Minnesota Program Development Inc. Creating a process of change for men who batter. Minnesota Program Development, Inc. Rennison, C. Special Report: Intimate Partner Violence. Shepard, M. Predicting batterer recidivism five years after intervention. Department of Justice. Homicide trends in the U.
Frequently Asked Questions - Domestic Abuse Intervention Programs
A domestic abuse intervention program developed in Duluth 30 years ago is the most widely used approach for treating domestic violence. The terms of his probation forced him to attend group counseling sessions. But the marriage ended within two years. The model calls for mandatory arrest when there are bruises or other evidence of physical abuse.
Miller's organization tracks the progress of abusers who have been through the program for eight years after their last contact with the criminal justice system. He says only three out of every 10 return to court. He says that's strong evidence that the Duluth Model works.
But that analysis is disputed by State. Paymar says you can't compare communities that don't adopt the model in its entirety. On Air. Play Pause. Share story Twitter Facebook. Amy, of Duluth, was helped out of a year-long abusive marriage by the "Duluth Model" program. She did not want her last name to be used. Fullscreen Slide Previous Slide 1 of 1. Program Schedule Station Directory.
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