How common is circumcision? Every year about 1. But over the past 30 years, the practice has been rapidly losing favor; the percentage of newborns who are circumcised has dropped from a high of 90 percent in the late s, to 80 percent in , to 60 percent today. In Canada, the rate is only 17 percent and in Britain 5 percent. Everywhere else in the non-Muslim and Jewish world, circumcision is almost unknown.
There are plenty of times were surgery is the responsible choice. We also used off-line methods of interviewing 5. Author Circumcision decline Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. At a time when most Brits were financially strapped, few cared to pay for something that suddenly seemed frivolous. In English-speaking countries, the circumcision rate has been declining or is already fairly low; e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The South Korean situation has implications for the present practices Circumcision decline circumcision in sub-Saharan African countries. There are secular movements advocating for the rights of the male children.
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It is estimated that Retrieved 13 March Circumcision was so closely associated with Jewish men that Jewish Christians were referred to as "those of the circumcision" e. Therefore, it is tempting to speculate that the very existence of information about the history of Korean circumcision, its contrary nature relative to a longstanding tradition, its introduction by the US military, etc. He also warned that it is Eating the jucy cunt for Online sexy couple videos woman with whom an uncircumcised man has had sexual intercourse to separate from him. Despite being reticent for fear Circumcision decline reprisals from his non-Jewish subjects he was eventually persuaded to do it by a Galileean Jew named Eleazar on the grounds that it was one thing to read the Law and another thing to practice it. One thing I rarely hear mentioned in these articles or comments sections is how much better sex feels for a woman with an intact man. Early Christianity Judaism Islam Jesus. Archived from the original on 19 July Techniques for restoring the appearance of an uncircumcised penis were known by the 2nd century BCE. The recent increase in the circumcision rate through mass-circumcision in sub-Saharan Africa has largely been driven by the supposed correlation between human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection and lack of circumcision. A 13th-century French disciple of Maimonides, Isaac ben Yediah claimed that circumcision was an effective way of reducing a woman's sexual desire. The original reason for the surgical removal of the foreskin, or prepuce, was to control 'masturbatory insanity' — the range of mental disorders that people believed were caused Circumcision decline the 'polluting' practice Circumcision decline 'self-abuse. December According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, the risk of a urinary tract infections within the first year of life is 1 in 1, for circumcised boys and 1 in for uncircumcised.
The percentage of newborns who are circumcised in the United States has been on the decline in recent decades, according to a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC.
- The rate of circumcision among American baby boys appears to be declining, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
- To investigate the changing circumcision rate in South Korea in the last decade and to propose underlying causes for this change, in the context of the present fluctuating world-wide trends in circumcision.
- Having your newborn baby boy circumcised used to be a common practice in the United States, but in recent years, more parents are opting out.
To investigate the changing circumcision rate in South Korea in the last decade and to propose underlying causes for this change, in the context of the present fluctuating world-wide trends in circumcision. From to , 3, South Korean males or their parents aged 0—64 years were asked about their circumcision status, their age at circumcision, and their information level regarding circumcision. We employed non-probability sampling considering the sensitive questions on the study theme.
Currently the age-standardized circumcision rate for South Korean males aged 14—29 is found to be In an earlier study performed in , the rate for the same age group was Of particular interest, males aged 14—16 show a circumcision rate of In addition, the extraordinarily high circumcision rate of Interestingly, of the circumcised males, the percentage circumcised in the last decade was only Consistent with this conjecture, the survey showed that the majority of circumcised males Focusing on the flagship age group of 14—16, this drop suggests that, considering the population structure of Korean males, approximately one million fewer circumcision operations have been performed in the last decade relative to the case of non-decline.
This decline is strongly correlated with the information available through internet, newspapers, lectures, books, and television: within the circumcised population, both the patients and their parents had less prior knowledge regarding circumcision, other than information obtained from person to person by oral communication.
Within the uncircumcised population, the prior knowledge was far greater, suggesting that information discouraging circumcision played an important role. South Korean male circumcision is likely to be undergoing a steep decline. The cause for this decline seems to be the increase in information available on the pros and cons of circumcision. Male circumcision is performed primarily for religious reasons, notably in Muslim and Jewish countries. Starting from the mids, circumcision began to be practiced in English-speaking countries, although the only such country where boys are routinely circumcised at present is the United States US.
It is the only country among its geographical and cultural neighbors in which most boys are circumcised; no other countries with strong Confucian and Buddhist traditions circumcise at this rate [ 1 ]. In fact, circumcision is against Korea's long and strong tradition of preserving the body as a gift from parents. Confucius said, "We received our body, hair, and skin from our parents and dare not harm them. Christianity has never been associated with circumcision throughout its year history; in fact, Saint Paul in Galatians of the New Testament explicitly says that it is unnecessary.
The recent popularity of both Protestant and Catholic Christianity in South Korea therefore cannot account for the present situation. These conclusions were drawn in a previous study [ 2 ], where it was found that virtually no circumcision was performed before the year In sub-Saharan Africa, mass medical circumcision has been promoted and practiced to prevent the spread of HIV: for instance, in Tanzania, tribal circumcision is being transformed into medical circumcision [ 4 ]; in Rwanda, we see the traditionally non-circumcising nation accepting mass medical circumcision [ 5 ].
In view of the diverse global attitudes regarding circumcision, the recent decline in circumcision in the US [ 6 ] and the sharp increase in medical circumcision in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere [ 4 , 5 , 7 ], we investigated how the circumcision rate in South Korea has changed over the last decade. Electronic mails were sent to each registered person of aoosung. We also used off-line methods of interviewing 5. The individual questions were exclusively regarding circumcision, to recruit maximum responses, and because previous studies regarding Korean circumcision revealed that the circumcision status is unrelated to religious, educational, economic, or geographical backgrounds [ 1 , 2 ].
Questionnaires are included in an Additional file 1. The study included 3, males aged 0—29 years. The maximum age of parents in the study was 64 years. They were questioned as to whether and when they were circumcised; from this information, we obtained the present circumcision rates along with age at circumcision. For both circumcised and uncircumcised individuals and their parents, we included questions on the age at circumcision and whether they had received various types of information, voluntary or involuntary such as both pros and cons , regarding circumcision.
The majority of the participants were recruited through the internet. All participants or their parents were fully informed about the survey and asked to provide informed consent. The data were analyzed using the Chi-square test. The number of completed responses was , out of total responses While relatively high, these rates are lower across the board when compared to those from our study broken line.
The present rate of Currently, the age-standardized circumcision rate with Korean Census Population being standard population was Among currently circumcised males, the percentage circumcised in the last decade was only This finding strongly suggests that the majority of currently circumcised males underwent the operation prior to In other words, much of the current circumcision rate is a carry-over from the years before In stark contrast with the present situation, the majority of circumcised males The circumcision rate of thenyear-olds as a function of calendar year.
The data are combined from ref. The circumcision rate and the percentage of circumcisions in the last decade for South Korean males aged 14— Therefore, to identify the main cause of the decline in circumcision rate, we analyzed the correlation between circumcision status and exposure to information on circumcision.
Since a correlation exists between information and circumcision status, we analyzed which media types were important sources of information regarding circumcision. Circumcision status in boys aged 0—29 years as a function of parental use of information for and against circumcision from sources other than person-to-person oral communication. Men aged 29 years were also counted as boys when the information was provided by a parent.
Circumcision status as a function of use of information for and against circumcision from sources other than person-to-person oral communication, for men aged 18— Use of information sources regarding circumcision between uncircumcised and circumcised individuals.
In English-speaking countries, the circumcision rate has been declining or is already fairly low; e. Even in the US, a steady decline in the neonatal circumcision rate has been reported [ 6 ].
To our surprise, we found that the circumcision rate decreased substantially in South Korea, much more than in the US. Both the rapid increase in the period from — and the recent decrease are more drastic when compared to their counterpart periods in US history. In the present study, the current circumcision rate of This decrease of The percentage of boys circumcised in the last decade was only This result strongly suggests that the majority of currently circumcised males underwent the procedure prior to Using a questionnaire included in our survey, we identified the wide range of information that has become newly available over the last decade as the chief cause of this decline in circumcision.
It is interesting, however, that the vast majority of the information available has been and still is about the benefits of circumcision and the active promotion of the procedure for males of all ages. Only after has some information against circumcision become available.
Therefore, it is tempting to speculate that the very existence of information about the history of Korean circumcision, its contrary nature relative to a longstanding tradition, its introduction by the US military, etc. We discuss the implication of declining circumcision rates in South Korea in view of the diverse global attitudes regarding circumcision. The recent increase in the circumcision rate through mass-circumcision in sub-Saharan Africa has largely been driven by the supposed correlation between human immunodeficiency virus HIV infection and lack of circumcision.
However, despite widespread information on the supposed benefits of circumcision including the alleged correlation between HIV and circumcision , the circumcision rate in the US has been declining. The present rapid increase in circumcision in such countries [ 11 ] as Uganda, Kenya, Botswana, Mozambique, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe is analogous to the situation in South Korea in the years between — [ 1 , 2 ].
Interestingly, Tanzania, which has been a traditionally circumcising country as a rite of passage, is transforming itself into a medically circumcising one [ 4 ]. In Rwanda, which is essentially a non-circumcising nation, both medically and traditionally, the medical circumcision is being vigorously pursued [ 5 ].
In this respect, African countries such as Rwanda closely resemble the South Korean situation of 50 years ago. The onset of South Korean circumcision can be pin-pointed to the years —, with the ending of Japanese occupation of Korea, and the start of the US military government and the Korean War. In South Korea, a large campaign in support of circumcision was aimed at preventing cervical cancer and the spread of the human papilloma virus HPV , whereas in present-day Africa, the motivation is to prevent the spread of HIV.
In addition, only positive information for circumcision was available to Koreans in —; this also seems to be the current case in many sub-Saharan African countries.
Improved resources in the US and South Korea have rendered it unnecessary to practice mass circumcision; in sub-Saharan countries, the initial rapid increase in circumcision may be overtaken by the human inclination toward body preservation, aided by improved financial resources and standards of living. The South African situation is interesting, as it is the African country with the highest standard of living but is also the one in which mass-circumcision is being criticized from within [ 12 ].
Circumcision in such English speaking countries as Great Britain, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand showed a rapid decline after an initial increase, although the overall circumcision rates were never as high as those in the US.
The question is then whether South Africa, being another English speaking country, will follow the trends of these English speaking nations or whether the desire for HIV prevention benefits will cause the South African rate to go higher. One limitation of the present study is cross-sectional design and non-probability sampling inherent in internet survey using internet sites and emails etc.
Similar sampling methods using internet were used in our study [ 2 ]. With wider usage of internet and email in the population, the present study may represent more general cross sectional sampling than the version. Clearly, further studies involving general population and probability sampling method are needed.
We contend that South Korean male circumcision has experienced a steep decline in the last decade: at The cause for this decline seems to be the new wealth of information available about circumcision, particularly the realization that the procedure is not mandatory.
The South Korean situation has implications for the present practices regarding circumcision in sub-Saharan African countries. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The questionnaire used in our survey; the questions were simplified to draw maximum response rate. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
BMC Public Health. Published online Dec Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. DaiSik Kim: rk. Received Apr 26; Accepted Nov This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Associated Data Supplementary Materials Additional file 1 The questionnaire used in our survey; the questions were simplified to draw maximum response rate. Abstract Background To investigate the changing circumcision rate in South Korea in the last decade and to propose underlying causes for this change, in the context of the present fluctuating world-wide trends in circumcision.
Methods From to , 3, South Korean males or their parents aged 0—64 years were asked about their circumcision status, their age at circumcision, and their information level regarding circumcision. Results Currently the age-standardized circumcision rate for South Korean males aged 14—29 is found to be
Doctors continued to promote it, however, as good penile hygiene and as a preventive for a handful of conditions local to the penis: balanitis , phimosis , and penile cancer. Financial access is another factor as Medicaid covers routine circumcision in only 30 states. In August , the American Academy of Pediatrics issued a revised policy statement, which outlines the advantages of circumcision. For Villalpando, circumcision is a tradition — a cherished legacy of her Jewish faith. Sixth Dynasty — BCE tomb artwork in Egypt has been thought to be the oldest documentary evidence of circumcision, the most ancient depiction being a bas-relief from the necropolis at Saqqara c. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. She's also a mom of two.
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Decline in Circumcision: Is It Happening in the USA?
Thank you for signing up. Sorry, it looks like an error occurred. As Iceland debates whether to outlaw circumcisions of newborn males, SBS News explores why rates have been dropping in Australia.
The procedure of removing the foreskin of a newborn male's genitalia has been practised for religious and cultural reasons for centuries. It is a common practice among Jewish, Muslim and some Christian communities but is also undergone for cultural reasons. For Jews and Muslims, the practice is stipulated in religious texts. It's also considered a practice among Indigenous Australian communities. The World Health Organisation WHO says neonatal, infant and child circumcision is generally safe if it is conducted by experienced providers in hygienic conditions, but there have been levels of risk outlined in some studies.
The Royal Australasian College of Physicians RACP says while there is evidence that shows some health benefits, there are also risks from the medical procedure. It considers the potential health benefits are not sufficient to recommend routine circumcision of all infant males. The RACP cites recent studies as showing circumcision may provide protection against urinary tract infections in infancy.
In a report, the WHO estimated one in three males worldwide were circumcised. In Australia, it said 59 per cent of men were circumcised. However, there may be some procedures not captured by the data if it is performed by religious figures, given the statistics are based on Medicare claims. But Professor Colditz says that would be a fairly small number in relation to the babies circumcised in the past year.
Professor Colditz says it is because of two aspects - more informed parents and more fathers not being circumcised themselves. Download our free app on the App Store or Google Play for the latest headlines and breaking news alerts. We love feedback: help us improve by rating the app and sharing your suggestions at apps sbs. Sign up now for the latest news from Australia and around the world direct to your inbox. Follow SBS News to join in the conversation and never miss the latest live updates.
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Sorry, it looks like an error occurred Please refresh the page and try again. By Rashida Yosufzai. What is circumcision? Benefits vs risks The World Health Organisation WHO says neonatal, infant and child circumcision is generally safe if it is conducted by experienced providers in hygienic conditions, but there have been levels of risk outlined in some studies. Iceland's move to ban male circumcision denounced by religious groups. News to your inbox Sign up now for the latest news from Australia and around the world direct to your inbox.