Artificial Insemination in Farm Animals. In Artificial Insemination AI the semen is collected manually from a stud male and thereafter deposited inseminated in the female so that fertilization can occur in the absence of natural mating. Artificial Insemination, one of the earliest techniques for assisted reproduction in animals and humans, took longer to be implemented in dogs due to species-specific particularities. In past decades, progresses in the knowledge of canine physiology and new advances in canine semen technology allowed these services to become available worldwide. Hence, subsequent to the increase in the artificial insemination demand among dog breeders and owners and the broaden of the AI to preserved semen as a management tool in canine breeding, as through international exchange of frozen semen, inbreeding within breeds can be reduced.
In young inexperienced males and dogs which mated earlier only naturally, without experience on semen collection, the obtained semen sample vrozen contain only the part of sperm-rich fraction. Selecting Breeding Stock. Results of controlled artificial inseminations in dogs. Localising Lesions: Spinal Cord. Smears of undiluted or diluted ejaculate are examined microscopically for the presence of structural abnormalities of spermatozoa. In the first case, the diameter of the equipment may be too large for introduction of the tip of optics near the uterine cervix, impairing visualization of external cervical orifice. Foley catheters are flexible catheters in a range of sizes and with an inflatable cuff. It mainly dependends on the size of the dog, the size of the prostate gland, the animal age, the frequency of semen collection, the level of erotisation, and the volume of 3 rd fraction collected.
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Otitis Externa. Labrador Retriever. Presurgical Antibiotics. Choosing canine artificial insemination right away can conceal the fact that ov the dog or the bitch is aggressive. Reasons like this will make natural breeding difficult and unsafe. It can range from pre-breeding examinations to high-risk situations like a planned cesarean. Categories: Breeding Dogs. Craniocervical Malformations. The pipette is withdrawn and discarded. Was this experience helpful?
However, the results obtained after one insemination were poorer partly because of an over-representation of late insemination in this group.
- Artificial insemination refers to the procedure of artificially introducing dog semen into the vagina or cervix of a female dog in order to bring about pregnancy.
- Last Updated on October 20th,
- Artificial insemination facilitates breeding between uncooperative pairs of dogs or dogs separated by long distances.
- Canine artificial insemination has improved in leaps and bounds over the last 30 years.
- Full text of the proceedings is presented here.
There are several ways to calculate an inseminate. For our purposes, an inseminate will be:. Semen may also have been concentrated with swim-up or differential centrifugation techniques. After mating or insemination, it is believed that spermatozoa form a sperm reservoir in any or all of the uterus, uterine glands, uterotubal junction and oviduct.
Fresh ejaculated sperm survival in the tubular tract is routinely 5 days and may be longer. It is likely that the longevity of sperm in the tubular tract is reduced when sperm are chilled or frozen. There are not good data to support these contentions, but anecdote suggests chilled semen has a life of 12 to 36 hours and frozen semen up to 12 hours in the tubular tract. At natural mating, the penile urethral meatus is located in the vaginal fornix and semen is ejaculated into the uterus Pollitt, personal communication , filling the uterine horns.
It seems intuitive that effective insemination techniques replicate this anatomic outcome. Coitus England et al. Semen components, especially prostatic fluid, are involved in uterine perfusion, sperm binding, uterine contractions, and fertility England et al. The Osiris catheter is a rigid catheter with an inflatable balloon with a syringe port to blow up the balloon and a separate port for insemination. The main limitation to Osiris catheters is that they only come in one size and so are a 'one size fits all.
Foley catheters are flexible catheters in a range of sizes and with an inflatable cuff. A separate sterile stylet provides rigidity but uses the insemination port and tunnel so the stylet has to be removed for insemination and the catheter cannot be maintained at the vaginal fornix. The catheter is rigid, which allows placement at the fornix; however, the vagina cannot be occluded or distended. The Mavic catheter Minitube is a plastic catheter with a malleable permanent stylet and a cuff located at the rostral end of the catheter, which is inflated with air once in situ.
A separate insemination channel is provided, which has a valve to prevent backflow of semen. Mavic catheters come in 3 different sizes and most accurately emulate natural mating. The bitch should be in standing position. An assistant ensures she doesn't sit or collapse. Digital vaginal examination ensures no anatomic anomaly or obstruction to catheter passage, and provides a small amount of water-soluble lubrication.
The catheter is passed along the dorsal surface of the caudal tubular tract, initially sharply dorsally through the vulva to avoid the clitoral fossa and the urethra, and then slightly ventrally as the catheter is advanced through the vestibulovaginal junction the singulum into the vagina with the tip of the catheter passing under the dorsal median post-cervical folds, coming to rest as close as possible to the vaginal fornix and the cervical opening.
With the Mavic catheter, once the catheter is in position, the cuff is inflated to occlude and distend the vagina, emulating the glans penis. Collectively, the insemination should occur slowly over 10 to 20 minutes. Andersen describes a technique using a rigid catheter, passed transvaginally into the vaginal fornix.
The cervix is palpable and fixed by transabdominal palpation, and the catheter is then threaded through the cervix using manipulation of both the rigid catheter and the cervix. This technique requires skill, practice, and dogs with the appropriately sized abdomen and is used in Scandinavian countries. TCI with a rigid endoscope is performed with a cystoscope or a human utero-endoscope. This allows the vaginal mucosa and the cervical opening to be seen prior to the passage of TCI catheter.
The bitch is standing and, if receptive, is usually not sedated. The vagina is insufflated. A cuffed device can be used to occlude the caudal tubular tract and to hold the endoscope. The technique requires practice and skill and expensive equipment but is minimally invasive, allows visualization of the uterine lumen, and is predictable.
First reported by Smith , under general anaesthesia, the bitch is in dorsal recumbency, and a midline exploratory laparotomy incision is made to permit exteriorization of the uterus. Each uterine horn is catheterized with gauge catheters. The inseminate is inseminated into each of the catheters and the laparotomy incision is closed. The site of insemination does not seem to affect sperm distribution in the uterus Fukushima et al.
The technique requires minimal practice and skill, uses equipment available in any veterinary hospital, allows visualization of the ovaries and uterine surface, but requires anesthesia and is painful and invasive. Surgical insemination is illegal in some European countries. The first report of a large data set Burgess et al.
Whelping rate of No difference in whelping rate between parous and nulliparous. Higher whelping rate for fresh Breed effect. Andersen K. Insemination with frozen dog semen based on a new insemination technique. Coeliotomy-assisted intrauterine insemination in dogs: a study of inseminations. Aust Vet J. Relationship between the fertile period and sperm transport in the bitch. Normal and abnormal uterine response to sperm deposition in the bitch. Whistler, Canada; Site of intrauterine artificial insemination in the bitch does not affect sperm distribution within the uterus.
Reprod Dom Anim. Evidence-based medicine in bovine, equine and canine reproduction: quality of current literature. Smith FO. Cryopreservation of canine semen: technique and performance.
Wilson MS. Nonsurgical intrauterine artificial insemination in bitches using frozen semen. J Reprod Fertil. Welcome, VIN Public! Search this Resource. View main page. Naturopathic Veterinary Medicine. Managing Complications. Urgent Anesthesia.
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Artificial insemination of dogs frozen semen. Artificial Insemination in Dogs
Maximizing Conception Rates Using Fresh Cooled or Frozen Canine Semen - TUFTSBG - VIN
Artificial Insemination in Farm Animals. In Artificial Insemination AI the semen is collected manually from a stud male and thereafter deposited inseminated in the female so that fertilization can occur in the absence of natural mating.
Artificial Insemination, one of the earliest techniques for assisted reproduction in animals and humans, took longer to be implemented in dogs due to species-specific particularities. In past decades, progresses in the knowledge of canine physiology and new advances in canine semen technology allowed these services to become available worldwide. Hence, subsequent to the increase in the artificial insemination demand among dog breeders and owners and the broaden of the AI to preserved semen as a management tool in canine breeding, as through international exchange of frozen semen, inbreeding within breeds can be reduced.
Also, it is possible to save semen from valuable dogs into sperm bank to be used in next generations, after their death or the peak of reproductive age.
In addition, breeders also are aware of the sanitary benefits associated with AI. Avoiding direct contact between the male and female, AI also prevents the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, as those originated by Brucella canis or Herpes virus Farstad, ; Linde Forsberg, a.
The reproductive physiology of this species and unfavourable response of the dog sperm to freezing were the two major constraints to the initial efforts to improve the AI technique in dogs Linde Forsberg, a. A lot of research was performed in those areas, especially in the northern Europe, to overcome these issues, generating a large amount of information and allowing technical development, in particular in the canine semen technology.
Nowadays, as a consequence of the demand for reproductive technologies, in particular the AI with fresh or refrigerate semen, this is a current service offered in the small animal veterinary practice. However, at least in Portugal, the use of imported chilled semen is far most frequent than the use of frozen semen when compared to other countries in Northern Europe.
Research on AI in the domestic dog, along with other reproductive technologies, proceed worldwide, particularly on sperm survival at freezing and the identification of deleterious components to spermatozoa or fertilization, providing important information for the preservation of wild canidae semen that are currently threatened or endangered.
In parallel, some ethical conditions must be discussed when facing the different interests of specific groups, namely dogs, breeders, owners and veterinarians. Main indications for AI in dogs include both medical and breeding-management reasons Table 1. As major potential advantage, AI may allow to reduce physical distances, the use of genetically valuable stud dog semen all over the word, fighting the stress of transportation of animals and inbreeding Johnston et al.
It is also an important technique whenever physical and behavioural abnormalities in the male or female preventing natural mating Table 2. Performing canine AI may raise some ethical concerns, mostly to central institutions like the National Kennel Clubs or Veterinarian Orders or equivalent, in particular on what concerns the use of frozen semen and the need for intra-uterine insemination, mainly those involving surgical procedures.
Ethical issues are seldom associated with the non-surgical process of artificial insemination per se. Most procedures used for semen deposition are neither detrimental to the bitch, nor interfere with animal welfare, and even allow protection against certain diseases.
Restrictions to the use of AI in animals that never matted despite all physiological conditions met together to guarantee a successful mate, may respond to the ethical issue that demands for ruling out clinical reasons for AI, as an underlying unaware problem congenital or behavioural may exists. According to those rules, AI should not be performed in animals not having at least one previous litter registered from natural service.
Furthermore, AI to be a recognisable breeding technique must be performed by veterinarian or a specifically recognisable technician, which skills will avoid complications or adverse effects, as well as stress or risks of welfare infringements towards the animals, in particular the female.
The competence of the operator to perform the procedures is essential to avoid all technique-related ethical constraints to the use of AI in dogs. Before offering canine AI services, practitioners ought to specialised themselves, acquiring profound knowledge of the reproductive physiology and pathology of the species and the skills to collect semen and to inseminate the female without risking animal health or welfare.
Semen collection in the dog is a relatively easy procedure, although requiring some training for optimization of the technique. Semen collection and evaluation is necessary to obtain good results in canine AI. Although practitioners are often asked to collect semen and perform AI without detailed semen analysis, every sample of semen collected should be evaluated at least progressive forward motility, total sperm count and morphology before it is used for artificial insemination or cryopreservation.
Semen evaluation prior to insemination warrants the male potential fertility and consequently may predict the fertility potential for the AI. In addition, when preparing semen preservation, fertility certificate may be needed. In such cases andrological evaluation of the stud dog breeding soundness evaluation or BSE has to be performed.
Semen collection should be performed before the physical exam or any stressful procedures on the stud, or can be booked to another day Freshman, ; Johnston et al, Semen can be collected from most dogs in the absence of a teaser, in a quiet and isolated room, where interruptions should be prevented, although the presence of a bitch would allow better ejaculates. Although possible, not everyone achieves the use of a chemical pheromone methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, Aldrich Chemical, Milwaukee, WI swabbed on the perineal area and tail of an anestrus teaser Johnston et al.
Collection of semen should be prepared in advance, and interval between collections or between the natural mating and collection, should be registered, if the male is regularly used. Ideal intervals between collections are 2 to 5 days, whilst intervals longer than 10 days may result in an increased number of morphological abnormalities and decreased motility Freshman, ; Johnston et al. In longer periods, it is advisable to perform one previous collection, if semen is to be chilled or frozen for shipment.
If semen preservation is planned, semen extender should be prepared before the arrival of the animal Freshman, The most common method for semen collection in the dog is by digital manipulation, in the presence of a female. However, bitch presence, although desirable as it facilitates procedures, is not essential to accomplish the collection Farstad, ; Linde Forsberg, a. It should be noticed that when the collection is achieved in the presence of the bitch ejaculates present higher concentration.
The use of manual massage is the most commonly used technique Farstad, ; Johnston et al. Nowadays, semen collection into a tube is commonly accomplished by penile massage and the use of a cone or plastic sleeve, a funnel or a special collecting vial Linde Forsberg, a. Briefly, the process is started with a massage of the dog prepuce at the level of the bulbus glandis until developing partial erection, followed by the quick retraction of the prepuce and penile expose.
During pelvic thrusting, rigid vials should be kept at a distance from the penis, to avoid trauma. Some pressure may be applied with the thumb on the apex of the glans penis , at the level of the urethral process, to stimulate ejaculation.
When a crystal clear fluid prostatic fluid begins to flow into the collection tube, you can gently slide the collection cone off the penis. Watch for semen to flow in the collection tube Farstad, ; Linde Forsberg, a. Canine ejaculate consists of 3 fractions, with the first and third fraction consisting of prostatic fluid and the second being rich in spermatozoa England et al.
The first fraction, the presperm portion, is emitted in 0. It is expelled during first stage of erection, at the moment of the presence of evident copulatory movement of male. The second fraction, the sperm-rich portion, is also rapidly completed minutes , and is grayish-white in colour, with a volume of ml. It is expelled when thrusting movement of the male ceases and full erection is observed.
Variation on the volume of the ejaculate with the size of the dog Dubiel, In most dogs, semen can be collected twice at 30 minutes interval Farstad, , although the second sample is usually slightly diluted. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated the existence of detrimental effects on fertility when this fraction is not separated from the second one, particularly if semen will be processed as chilled or frozen.
Consequently, ejaculate fractioning should always be accomplished, particularly separation of the third fraction. If the ejaculate has a very small volume, it may be diluted with semen extender, to facilitate its handling during insemination procedures.
Semen assessment is an important part of the evaluation of fertility in males and it should be performed as routine element of prebreeding examination. Furthermore, semen evaluation ought to be completed before artificial insemination or sperm preservation. Semen should be assessed immediately after collection and it has to be handled carefully during all the procedures. Rapid changes of environmental temperature may be deleterious for spermatozoal motility and structure, and may also artifactually influence the results of examination.
Any delay in semen assessment may decrease the percentage of motile sperm and simultaneously increase the percentage of dead sperm. On table 5 , the most frequent indications for routine semen evaluation are presented. Semen evaluation is also frequently performed in the absence of known reproductive pathology, upon request of the owner.
In addition, it can be performed at a predetermined moment after the diagnosis of a clinical disease that may have negative reflects on the potential fertility of a male dog. It should be notice that reliable in vitro estimation of the real fertilizing ability of sperm cells is not always possible. Usually, in males with aspermic no ejaculate , azoospermic no spermatozoa , or necrospermic no motile spermatozoa semen, the fertilizing potential may be excluded.
When the quality of semen in a dog with history of unsuccessful matings is low, premises exist to exclude such male from the breeding programme. However, it should always be remembered that the semen characteristics should be recheck times at weeks intervals, to confirm the male infertility. On the other hand, good in vitro semen quality does not always prove the fertilizing potential of a particular dog.
After a prolonged sexual rest dogs may ejaculate many dead, immotile spermatozoa of abnormal morphology;. In young inexperienced males and dogs which mated earlier only naturally, without experience on semen collection, the obtained semen sample may contain only the part of sperm-rich fraction. Different approaches are available to assess the quality of the dog semen that can be grouped in conventional and advanced techniques. The later, usually requires more sophisticated means for the semen assessment and the support of a technical equipment, while the former may be performed in an inhouse lab.
The conventional approaches to semen evaluation include macroscopical evaluation of the semen volume and colour , but also the microscopical assessment, which will give the concentration and the number of viable cells in the ejaculate.
The volume of the ejaculate may be assessed in the calibrated tubes used for semen collection. It mainly dependends on the size of the dog, the size of the prostate gland, the animal age, the frequency of semen collection, the level of erotisation, and the volume of 3 rd fraction collected.
A decrease of semen volume is observed in cases of benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatic cysts, inflammatory lesions of prostate and testicles, inflammation of epididymis, vas deferens or urethra and at weak libido. The colour of whole ejaculate depends on the volume of third fraction of ejaculate collected, on the concentration of spermatozoa per mL and the potential presence of non-germ cells in the ejaculate.
When analysing the colour, one should be aware of the method of collection, as colour varies with the fraction to be analysed and the fact that analysis may been performed on the whole semen or on fractioned semen. The normal colour of whole ejaculate is greyish-white.
Pathological colours include: green-greyish typical for the presence of the pus in semen; red or pink-specific for erythrocytes contamination haemorrhages from urethra or corpora cavernosa, prostatitis ; yellow specific for urine contamination; and brown, if in the presence of blood.
Any kind of semen contamination, such as hair or mud, exclude the specimen from further procedures including artificial insemination or semen preservation. It is therefore important to check the region of praeputial opening before semen collection and to clean it.
The presence of sediment consisting of sperm cells at the bottom of the tube is a normal feature if the semen is left for several minutes. One of the most important step of conventional semen assessment is the subjective evaluation of progressively motile spermatozoa Spz under contrast-phase microscope. The evaluation is performed under the objective of x20 to x If the highly concentrated sperm-rich fraction is collected separately, the semen should be extended with saline or Tris-buffer to a concentration allowing the observation of particular, single sperm cells.
The assessment is based on the evaluation of the average percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa in a few different fields of the specimen.
A decrease in the percentage of motile spermatozoa may results from temperature shock, contamination with water, urine, blood or lubricants but also from long sexual abstinence and systemic or infectious diseases, such as brucellosis. Sperm agglutination is always pathological and is frequently found in cases of infectious diseases. Concentration and total sperm count. In order to find the sperm count per mL, the number of spermatozoa in the one or four large squares depending of the chamber is multiplied by For the assessment of sperm concentration more sophisticated equipment could also be used, such as the spectrophotometer, flow cytometer or computer assisted semen analyser Rijsselaere et al.
A large variety in the total number of spermatozoa per ejaculate is observed in different breeds. It varies between 50 x10 6 up to x 10 6 Spz Linde-Forsberg, ; Oettle Small breeds do not produce as many spermatozoa as large breeds, as sperm cell production is related to the weight of the testicular tissue. The number of spermatozoa per ejaculate also varies according to age, testicular weight, sexual activity and the size of the dog Amann,