HIV human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight infection, making a person more vulnerable to other infections and diseases. It is spread by contact with certain bodily fluids of a person with HIV, most commonly during unprotected sex sex without a condom or HIV medicine to prevent or treat HIV , or through sharing injection drug equipment. So, once you have HIV, you have it for life. In the U. Once someone has a dangerous opportunistic illness, life expectancy without treatment falls to about 1 year.
Follow HIV. HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. Because these symptoms are similar to common illnesses like the flu, the person with them might not think they need to see a healthcare provider. They represent Aids and the hiv virus 1 in infected persons. September 16, An antibody is a type of protein the body makes to fight an infection. However, people who take HIV medicine as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load or stay virally suppressed have effectively Ussy fuck risk of transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative sexual partners. CBC News. Symptoms of HIV infection Most people experience a short flu-like illness 2 to 6 weeks after HIV infection, which lasts for a week or 2. This research includes Aids and the hiv virus health interventions such as sex educationand drug developmentsuch as research into microbicides for sexually transmitted diseasesHIV vaccinesand antiretroviral drugs.
Bare minimals. HIV/AIDS: The Basics
Archived from the original on March 8, Harm reduction for people who inject and use drugs People who inject drugs can take precautions against becoming infected with HIV by using sterile injecting equipment, including needles and syringes, for each injection and not sharing drug using equipment and drug solutions. Check out this interactive graphic that shows what happens in your body Aids and the hiv virus the symptoms that occur. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation". A matrix composed of the viral protein p17 surrounds the capsid ensuring the integrity of the virion particle. Discovery Medicine. Common chimpanzee. There is no cure for HIV infection. Glenn butts from the original on April 22, Population and society.
In the United States, HIV is spread mainly by having anal or vaginal sex or sharing injection drug equipment, such as needles, with a person who has HIV.
- These special cells help the immune system fight off infections.
- Research has shown for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples that HIV is untransmissable through condomless sexual intercourse if the HIV-positive partner has a consistently undetectable viral load.
- Thanks to research and the development of new treatments, people with HIV at any stage today are living long, productive lives.
- HIV is spread primarily by unprotected sex including anal and oral sex , contaminated blood transfusions , hypodermic needles , and from mother to child during pregnancy , delivery, or breastfeeding.
- The Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV targets the immune system and weakens people's defense systems against infections and some types of cancer.
- HIV is most commonly diagnosed by testing your blood or saliva for antibodies to the virus.
HIV human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that attacks cells that help the body fight infection, making a person more vulnerable to other infections and diseases.
It is spread by contact with certain bodily fluids of a person with HIV, most commonly during unprotected sex sex without a condom or HIV medicine to prevent or treat HIV , or through sharing injection drug equipment. So, once you have HIV, you have it for life. In the U. Once someone has a dangerous opportunistic illness, life expectancy without treatment falls to about 1 year. The only way to know for sure if you have HIV is to get tested.
Testing is relatively simple. You can ask your health care provider for an HIV test. Many medical clinics, substance abuse programs, community health centers, and hospitals offer them too. You can also buy a home testing kit at a pharmacy or online. Content Source: HIV.
Many Federal agencies have developed public awareness and education campaigns to address HIV prevention, treatment, care, and research. Also included is information about campaigns related to the prevention and diagnosis of hepatitis B and C. El VIH es una amenaza de salud grave para las comunidades latinas, quienes se encuentran en gran desventaja respecto de la incidencia de esta enfermedad en los Estados Unidos.
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What can we improve? Next We thank you for your time spent taking this survey. Your response has been recorded. Campaigns Many Federal agencies have developed public awareness and education campaigns to address HIV prevention, treatment, care, and research.
More on Campaigns. Ver Mas Recursos. Learning Opportunities Want to stay abreast of changes in prevention, care, treatment or research or other public health arenas that affect our collective response to the HIV epidemic? Stay up to date with the webinars, Twitter chats, conferences and more in this section. More Learning Opportunities.
Universal precautions within the health care environment are believed to be effective in decreasing the risk of HIV. Retrieved September 17, New York, N. Though people living with HIV tend to be most infectious in the first few months, many are unaware of their status until later stages. Cameroon 3. A blood or saliva test can detect those antibodies to determine if the virus is present.
Aids and the hiv virus. Transmission
HIV/AIDS: The Basics | Understanding HIV/AIDS | AIDSinfo
HIV is spread primarily by unprotected sex including anal and oral sex , contaminated blood transfusions , hypodermic needles , and from mother to child during pregnancy , delivery, or breastfeeding.
During , about Owing to their nonspecific character, these symptoms are not often recognized as signs of HIV infection. Even cases that do get seen by a family doctor or a hospital are often misdiagnosed as one of the many common infectious diseases with overlapping symptoms. Thus, it is recommended that HIV be considered in people presenting with an unexplained fever who may have risk factors for the infection.
They represent approximately 1 in infected persons. Opportunistic infections may be caused by bacteria , viruses , fungi , and parasites that are normally controlled by the immune system. People with AIDS have an increased risk of developing various viral-induced cancers, including Kaposi's sarcoma , Burkitt's lymphoma , primary central nervous system lymphoma , and cervical cancer.
Additionally, people with AIDS frequently have systemic symptoms such as prolonged fevers, sweats particularly at night , swollen lymph nodes, chills, weakness, and unintended weight loss. HIV is spread by three main routes: sexual contact , significant exposure to infected body fluids or tissues, and from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding known as vertical transmission.
The most frequent mode of transmission of HIV is through sexual contact with an infected person. With regard to unprotected heterosexual contacts, estimates of the risk of HIV transmission per sexual act appear to be four to ten times higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries.
Risk of transmission increases in the presence of many sexually transmitted infections  and genital ulcers. The viral load of an infected person is an important risk factor in both sexual and mother-to-child transmission. Commercial sex workers including those in pornography have an increased likelihood of contracting HIV. The second-most frequent mode of HIV transmission is via blood and blood products.
The risk from sharing a needle during drug injection is between 0. People giving or receiving tattoos , piercings , and scarification are theoretically at risk of infection but no confirmed cases have been documented. HIV can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, during delivery, or through breast milk, resulting in the baby also contracting HIV.
Due to the increased risk of death without breastfeeding in many areas in the developing world, the World Health Organization recommends either 1 the mother and baby being treated with antiretroviral medication while breastfeeding being continued, or 2 the provision of safe formula. HIV is a member of the genus Lentivirus ,  part of the family Retroviridae. Many species of mammals are infected by lentiviruses, which are characteristically responsible for long-duration illnesses with a long incubation period.
Upon entry into the target cell, the viral RNA genome is converted reverse transcribed into double-stranded DNA by a virally encoded reverse transcriptase that is transported along with the viral genome in the virus particle. The resulting viral DNA is then imported into the cell nucleus and integrated into the cellular DNA by a virally encoded integrase and host co-factors.
It is more virulent , more infective ,  and is the cause of the majority of HIV infections globally. After the virus enters the body there is a period of rapid viral replication , leading to an abundance of virus in the peripheral blood.
During primary infection, the level of HIV may reach several million virus particles per milliliter of blood. This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections. T cells are essential to the immune response and without them, the body cannot fight infections or kill cancerous cells. Most people infected with HIV develop specific antibodies i. Since the WHO's staging system does not require laboratory tests, it is suited to the resource-restricted conditions encountered in developing countries, where it can also be used to help guide clinical management.
Despite their differences, the two systems allow comparison for statistical purposes. Programs encouraging sexual abstinence do not appear to affect subsequent HIV risk.
Universal precautions within the health care environment are believed to be effective in decreasing the risk of HIV. PEP treatment is recommended after a sexual assault when the perpetrator is known to be HIV positive, but is controversial when their HIV status is unknown. There is currently no cure, nor any effective HIV vaccine. Treatment consists of highly active antiretroviral therapy HAART which slows progression of the disease.
Current HAART options are combinations or "cocktails" consisting of at least three medications belonging to at least two types, or "classes", of antiretroviral agents. The World Health Organization and United States recommends antiretrovirals in people of all ages including pregnant women as soon as the diagnosis is made regardless of CD4 count. Benefits of treatment include a decreased risk of progression to AIDS and a decreased risk of death. Specific adverse events are related to the antiretroviral agent taken.
Treatment recommendations for children are somewhat different from those for adults. The World Health Organization recommends treating all children less than 5 years of age; children above 5 are treated like adults. In addition to improving current disease, treatment with antiretrovirals reduces the risk of developing additional opportunistic infections. Dietary intake of micronutrients at RDA levels by HIV-infected adults is recommended by the WHO; higher intake of vitamin A , zinc , and iron can produce adverse effects in HIV-positive adults, and is not recommended unless there is documented deficiency.
Evidence for supplementation with selenium is mixed with some tentative evidence of benefit. Even with anti-retroviral treatment, over the long term HIV-infected people may experience neurocognitive disorders ,  osteoporosis ,  neuropathy ,  cancers,   nephropathy ,  and cardiovascular disease.
Sub-Saharan Africa is the region most affected. During in the United States approximately 1. In the early days, the CDC did not have an official name for the disease, often referring to it by way of the diseases that were associated with it, for example, lymphadenopathy , the disease after which the discoverers of HIV originally named the virus.
In , two separate research groups led by Robert Gallo and Luc Montagnier declared that a novel retrovirus may have been infecting people with AIDS, and published their findings in the same issue of the journal Science. At the same time, Montagnier's group isolated a virus from a person presenting with swelling of the lymph nodes of the neck and physical weakness , two characteristic symptoms of AIDS.
Contradicting the report from Gallo's group, Montagnier and his colleagues showed that core proteins of this virus were immunologically different from those of HTLV-I. Montagnier's group named their isolated virus lymphadenopathy-associated virus LAV. Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 are believed to have originated in non-human primates in West-central Africa and were transferred to humans in the early 20th century.
There is evidence that humans who participate in bushmeat activities, either as hunters or as bushmeat vendors, commonly acquire SIV. It is thought that several transmissions of the virus from individual to individual in quick succession are necessary to allow it enough time to mutate into HIV. Specific proposed high-risk transmission channels, allowing the virus to adapt to humans and spread throughout the society, depend on the proposed timing of the animal-to-human crossing.
Genetic studies of the virus suggest that the most recent common ancestor of the HIV-1 M group dates back to c. An alternative view holds that unsafe medical practices in Africa after World War II, such as unsterile reuse of single-use syringes during mass vaccination, antibiotic and anti-malaria treatment campaigns, were the initial vector that allowed the virus to adapt to humans and spread. The earliest well-documented case of HIV in a human dates back to in the Congo.
By , Haitians made up the second-largest group of well-educated experts out of the 48 national groups recruited , that totaled around in the country. AIDS stigma exists around the world in a variety of ways, including ostracism , rejection , discrimination and avoidance of HIV-infected people; compulsory HIV testing without prior consent or protection of confidentiality ; violence against HIV-infected individuals or people who are perceived to be infected with HIV; and the quarantine of HIV-infected individuals.
Often, AIDS stigma is expressed in conjunction with one or more other stigmas, particularly those associated with homosexuality, bisexuality , promiscuity , prostitution, and intravenous drug use. In many developed countries , there is an association between AIDS and homosexuality or bisexuality , and this association is correlated with higher levels of sexual prejudice, such as anti-homosexual or anti-bisexual attitudes.
In , as part of an overall reform of marriage and population legislation, it became legal for people with AIDS to marry in China. In , the U. Before death they will not only be unable to work, but will also require significant medical care. By affecting mainly young adults, AIDS reduces the taxable population, in turn reducing the resources available for public expenditures such as education and health services not related to AIDS, resulting in increasing pressure on the state's finances and slower growth of the economy.
This causes a slower growth of the tax base, an effect that is reinforced if there are growing expenditures on treating the sick, training to replace sick workers , sick pay and caring for AIDS orphans. This is especially true if the sharp increase in adult mortality shifts the responsibility from the family to the government in caring for these orphans. At the household level, AIDS causes both loss of income and increased spending on healthcare.
This additional expenditure also leaves less income to spend on education and other personal or family investment. The topic of religion and AIDS has become highly controversial in the past twenty years, primarily because some religious authorities have publicly declared their opposition to the use of condoms. In , the BBC reported that some churches in London were claiming that prayer would cure AIDS, and the Hackney -based Centre for the Study of Sexual Health and HIV reported that several people stopped taking their medication, sometimes on the direct advice of their pastor, leading to a number of deaths.
One of the first high-profile cases of AIDS was the American Rock Hudson , a gay actor who had been married and divorced earlier in life, who died on October 2, , having announced that he was suffering from the virus on July 25 that year.
He had been diagnosed during One of the first high-profile heterosexual cases of the virus was American tennis player Arthur Ashe. He was diagnosed as HIV positive on August 31, , having contracted the virus from blood transfusions during heart surgery earlier in the s. Further tests within 24 hours of the initial diagnosis revealed that Ashe had AIDS, but he did not tell the public about his diagnosis until April Criminal transmission of HIV is the intentional or reckless infection of a person with the human immunodeficiency virus HIV.
Some countries or jurisdictions, including some areas of the United States, have laws that criminalize HIV transmission or exposure. In , Ugandan-born Canadian Johnson Aziga was diagnosed with HIV; he subsequently had unprotected sex with 11 women without disclosing his diagnosis. Several discredited conspiracy theories have held that HIV was created by scientists, either inadvertently or deliberately. Surveys show that a significant number of people believed—and continue to believe—in such claims.
This research includes behavioral health interventions such as sex education , and drug development , such as research into microbicides for sexually transmitted diseases , HIV vaccines , and antiretroviral drugs. Other medical research areas include the topics of pre-exposure prophylaxis , post-exposure prophylaxis , and circumcision and HIV. Public health officials, researchers, and programs can gain a more comprehensive picture of the barriers they face, and the efficacy of current approaches to HIV treatment and prevention, by tracking standard HIV indicators.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Spectrum of conditions caused by HIV infection. For other uses, see AIDS disambiguation. Play media. Main article: HIV. Main article: HIV and pregnancy. Main article: HIV vaccine. Main article: Criminal transmission of HIV.
May 15, Retrieved September 10, Archived from the original on October 18,