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Verified by Psychology Today. All About Addiction. In a recent post on Internet addiction , we briefly mentioned addictions to internet pornography. There's no doubt that the easy access, and anonymity, of online access to any and every sexual whim conceivable is at the heart of online porn's draw. Here we will take a more in-depth look at how Internet porn addiction develops.

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When you add complete anonymity into the mix, you get a recipe for a potentially serious addiction 2. The Washington Post. Skill development was enabled through workshops, discussion, hot topics, information, pamphlets, links to online resources and practical activities e. These recommendations vree important considerations for future PASH conferences and require further exploration. In that after-school program, Adolessent porn free I saw is that -- from the minute we mentioned the word pornography -- those kids were ready to jump into a back and forth about what they Adolessent porn free and didn't want to see in pornography and what they didn't want to do during sex and what was degrading to women or unfair to men or racist, all of it. A failure to control for such variables may contribute to the conflicting findings discussed above. Impotence and ms Circle usually starts with the Profile screen, where you get a simple, clean overview of the settings and current stats of any one family member. I'll tell you one thing. Routinely observed higher levels of risk taking among adolescent men may primarily Adolsssent sensation seeking [ 61 ], which is systematically higher in men than women, rather than the related but independent construct of impulsivity [ 62 ]. Lathe cut rubber rings between blocking, monitoring, and filtering software on the home computer and youth-reported unwanted exposure to sexual material online.

Free watersports trailers. — The importance of "pornography literacy"

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Filtering out the bits of human knowledge you don't like and leaving all the bits you do is a deceptively difficult task; it's one of the classic "I may not know art, but I know what I don't like" problems.

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Cross-sectional evidence suggests that pornography use is related to lower mental well-being among adolescents but it remains unclear if changes in well-being are related to the dynamics of pornography use within this population. After controlling for impulsiveness and family environment—factors that are unlikely to be influenced by pornography use—earlier levels of pornography use were not significantly associated with subsequent decreases in subjective well-being across gender and panel.

However, pornography use was associated with increases in both self-esteem and symptoms of depression and anxiety, albeit only among adolescent women in one of the two panels. In addition, low subjective well-being was associated with a subsequent increase in pornography use, but only in female adolescents in one panel.

Such links should be considered tentative until verified with further research. However, the rise of Internet pornography has given new urgency to this issue, presumably because of the increased anonymity, affordability, and accessibility [ 2 , 3 ] that it is said to provide [ 4 ]. In our current age, popular media discussions of the dangers of Internet pornography for children and adolescents have begun to revolve around public health conceptualizations [ 5 ].

Given the non-trivial rates of pornography use among teens, there are several reasons for concern about the impact of Internet pornography on adolescent development. Of particular interest are the implications of potential harms of pornography on adolescent well-being. At an individual level, well-being refers to a state of mental and physical wellness and involves both objective and subjective components [ 16 ]. In the social sciences, mental well-being has been further differentiated into the interrelated concepts of subjective well-being the hedonic tradition and psychological well-being the eudaimonic tradition [ 17 , 18 ].

Subjective well-being is generally conceptualized as the experience of positive, rather than negative affect, combined with a sense of life satisfaction [ 19 ]. In contrast, psychological well-being, which was inspired by more humanistic philosophies, conceptualizes well-being along six dimensions, including self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth [ 20 ].

The literature concerning pornography use and mental well-being stems from the study of late adolescents and early adulthood, and can be largely organized around the domains of self-evaluations, interpersonal functioning, and the experience of dysregulated affect. Although research findings are mixed, there are several reasons to believe that pornography use may impact the mental well-being of adolescents.

Furthermore, cross-sectional surveys have found that pornography use is related to reports of more negative affect, poor mental health and lower quality of life among adults [ 24 , 25 ] as well as lower life-satisfaction and self-esteem, and more symptoms of depression among adolescents [ 12 , 26 — 28 ].

On the basis of this evidence, the case for pornography having a negative impact on adolescent mental well-being may seem strong, however, several studies fail to support this conclusion—at least partially. For example, some research has indicated that pornography use is either unrelated, or positively related to body and genital satisfaction, and to sexual esteem among adult samples [ 22 , 24 , 29 ].

Further, other studies have failed to observe significant relationships between social connectedness, attachment to parents and peers, and pornography use among adolescents [ 11 , 12 ], or have found that adult pornography users actually have more close relationships than non-users [ 30 ].

Finally, at least one study has failed to find a significant association between pornography use and self-esteem among adolescents [ 12 ], while another reported a positive relationship between the two constructs in young adult males [ 29 ]. Even if one were to assume that the bulk of accumulated evidence favors the hypothesis that pornography use is associated with lower mental well-being among adolescents, it still remains unclear if pornography use can cause impairments in well-being.

The primary issue is the failure to control for potential confounds, or variables that may reasonably be expected to create spurious correlations between pornography use and psychological health. For example, it is unlikely that pornography use among adolescents causally contributes to impulsivity and poor family functioning—although these characteristics have been found to be associated with pornography use [ 12 , 31 ] and are also likely connected to poor mental well-being.

A failure to control for such variables may contribute to the conflicting findings discussed above. Secondly, despite causal reasoning that underlies many theories that are employed when studying the presumed effects of pornography use e. Although growing in number, there are still relatively few longitudinal studies of pornography use among adolescents which are helpful for uncovering evidence of antecedent order, and—for obvious ethical reasons—no experimental studies that we are aware of.

Finally, assuming that pornography use is responsible for impaired well-being ignores the possibility that pornography, as an entertainment medium, may be used intentionally to improve mood or adjust poor psychological health states. When pornography users are asked why they use pornography, aside from its obvious sexual gratification function, many people report using pornography to induce positive affect e.

Substantiating this possibility further, the only longitudinal analysis of the connection between pornography use and subjective well-being among adolescents reported that low life satisfaction predicted subsequent increases in pornography use over time [ 11 ]. Such evidence challenges unidirectional causal thinking in favor of transactional theories, such as the Differential Susceptibility to Media Effects model [ 36 ], which articulate the causal interplay between pornography use and its presumed harms over time.

To address shortcomings in our understanding of the relationship between pornography use and mental well-being among adolescents, we used two independent panel samples of Croatian adolescents to explore the following research question informed by the current weight of evidence : Are the dynamics of frequency of pornography use associated with the dynamics of subjective well-being among adolescents?

Given the diverse findings and the conceptual and methodological limitations in this area, the association between pornography use and a global measure of subjective well-being was explored using cross-lagged structural equation modeling approach with two time-points 12 months apart.

This relatively lengthy period of time under observation provides insights into possible longer-term effects of exposure to sexually explicit imagery.

To supplement these analyses, additional associations between pornography use and two facets of subjective well-being—dysregulated affect operationalized as symptoms of depression and anxiety and self-esteem—were examined with a linear mixed model approach to lagged analysis. Although self-esteem is more clearly affiliated with the conceptual definition of psychological rather than subjective well-being [ 19 , 20 ], empirical evidence indicates that self-esteem is moderately to strongly associated with global measures of subjective well-being [ 37 , 38 ], indicating that self-evaluations may be a point of overlap between the two concepts.

Examining these facets offered the opportunity to consider finer-grain associations between pornography use and mental well-being, and helped connect our analysis of subjective well-being to the existing body of evidence concerning pornography use, mental health, and self-evaluations.

In Zagreb, students were recruited from 59 of 90 schools in the capitol city and the surrounding county. Unlike the Zagreb panel, which was carried out using Internet surveying after 2, adolescents registered online to receive a unique code , the Rijeka sample was classroom based, with screens placed between students to maximize confidentiality.

In the Rijeka panel, in which participants received no compensation for participation, attrition was mostly due to school absenteeism and mistakes in re-creating a 5-digit alphanumeric identification code at each wave. The panel size varied from 1, at wave 1 W1 to 1, at W4.

At W5, it dropped to participants because students enrolled in 3-year vocational schools finished their secondary education between W4 and W5. The selection was based on the fact that some of the key constructs were measured only at these waves.

To address possible attrition bias, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out by panel, with the dependent variable denoting adolescents who were included in this study coded 1 and those who were not coded 0. According to recent guidelines, these differences should be interpreted as small in size [ 39 ]. Analyses involving depression and anxiety and self-esteem, indicators of subjective well-being, were based on different subsets of data from the two panels.

Again, the observed differences were small [ 39 ]. In the online panel Zagreb , participants confirmed their consent after reading detailed information about the study and participation by clicking on a button. Only participants who provided informed consent were able to access the questionnaire. The procedure was repeated in each wave. In the classroom-based panel Rijeka , information required for informed consent was provided orally by a study assistant and in print, on the first page of the questionnaire booklet.

Students were instructed to read the information carefully and then proceed to the questionnaire only if they understood the information and agreed to be a participant in the study.

In addition to consent-related information, all questionnaires contained the contact information of a national organization that offers support and counseling to children and young people. In Rijeka, the informed consent procedure was also communicated by a research assistant who supervised classroom surveying. Permission was obtained from all participating schools before the participant recruitment began. The rationale, hypotheses, and data-analytic plan were developed before analyzing data from the Zagreb panel.

At baseline, Defined as a highly personal assessment of quality of life [ 41 ], subjective well-being was measured at W3 and W5 in the Zagreb panel and W2 and W4 in Rijeka. In the corresponding analyses, these time points are referred to as T1 and T2. The four items asked about satisfaction with various facets of life, including health, relationships and personal achievement. This construct was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety PHQ-4 [ 43 ] at W2-W4 in the Zagreb panel and W1-W5 in the Rijeka panel, This brief 4-item screening scale that asked about the symptoms of depression 2 items and anxiety 2 items experienced in the two weeks preceding the survey.

General self-esteem was assessed by a 4-item scale e. The construct was treated as a time invariant characteristic personal trait. Following exploratory factor analysis which resulted with a 2-dimensional structure in each panel the second dimension included the only two reverse worded items; e.

Higher scores denoted more adverse family environment. All measures used in this study were presented in Croatian and were characterized by identical wording and formatting across the two panels. The original Croatian wording and English translations of all measures can be found in S1 Appendix. With the two independent panels employing the same measures, albeit, often measured in different waves, the overarching data analytic plan was to compare the results of conceptually similar analyses across the two samples in an exploratory-confirmatory fashion.

Thus, the interpretation of our findings rested primarily on consistent patterns of null and significant associations across the Zagreb and Rijeka panels, though inconsistent findings were also noted.

Because of differences in the availability of subjective well-being, depression and anxiety, and self-esteem across measurement occasions, two separate cross-lagged models were initially pre-registered: one involved subjective well-being described below while the other incorporated both depression and anxiety and self-esteem. Following preliminary data analysis, the cross-lagged model involving pornography use, depression and anxiety, and self-esteem was supplanted by a lagged linear mixed model approach described below.

The association between pornography use and subjective well-being was explored with cross-lagged path analytic models, with pornography use at first measurement T1 predicting well-being in the next measurement T2 and vice versa. It should be noted that the assessment likely covered somewhat different developmental phases in the two panels.

In Rijeka, participants were about The analysis was carried out in several steps [ 46 ] and began with data from the Zagreb panel, which were used to pre-register expectations for the Rijeka panel. First, an unconditional cross-lagged model Model 1 was explored. Error variances of the two constructs were allowed to co-vary between T1 and T2, as well as error terms of each well-being item.

In the next step, impulsiveness and adverse family environment were added to the model as correlates of pornography use and well-being at both measurements to control for possible confounding.

This final model Model 2 was then explored for gender invariance. Using a multi-group comparative approach, tests were carried out in progressively more restrictive steps, from configural to strong factorial invariance [ 46 ]. Due to measurement discrepancies in impulsiveness, only configural invariance was confirmed in the Zagreb panel and weak factorial invariance in the Rijeka panel, which suggested that direct comparisons between male and female adolescents should be avoided in both panels.

The robustness of findings was checked by bootstrapping Model 2 in both panels with 2, resamples to address multivariate non-normality. Unexpected difficulties arose in the interpretation of the results. Problems included the failure to replicate significant paths and covariances across the two models, the failure to replicate significant paths and covariances across measurement occasions within the same models, and inconsistent directions i.

To clarify the findings, a post-hoc decision was made to re-examine the associations between these variables using a linear mixed modeling approach to lagged analysis. Importantly, dependencies in the residuals are also modeled with heterogeneous auto-regressive structure ARH1 , while any further nesting can be accounted for with random effects. In this analysis, a significant effect for the independent variable indicates average associations between the independent variable and changes in the dependent variable across all waves in a given panel.

Essentially, this approach provides information that is similar in interpretation to path coefficients in a cross-lagged model but aggregated across measurement occasions. For each panel, this approach was applied separately to the prediction of depression and anxiety, self-esteem, and pornography use. In several cases, models that were tested with Zagreb panel data would not converge due to low variability in the intercept for schools. In these cases, the random effect was fixed to zero.

In the final step, impulsiveness and adverse family environment were added to each model to examine the robustness of effects that emerged for pornography use while controlling for the two possible confounders. Links between the focal variables and hypothesized confounders impulsiveness and adverse family environment were mostly significant and in the expected directions.

Zero-order coefficients for the Zagreb panel are presented above the main diagonal and those for the Rijeka panel are shown below it; coefficients for male participants are in the top row and coefficients for their female peers in the bottom row. Correlations for males lie above the diagonal while correlations for females lie below the diagonal. A cross-lagged path analytic model was used to explore the direction of associations between adolescent pornography use and subjective well-being, while controlling for their previous levels.

The pattern of findings in the larger panel Rijeka was identical in the male but not female sample. With respect to female adolescents, no significant cross-lagged paths were observed. Next, to address possible confounding, the basic cross-lagged model was extended by including impulsiveness and adverse family environment as potential confounders.

The extended model confirmed the findings in the male sample from Zagreb.

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Positive youth development PYD models are effective in improving adolescent sexual health. Adolescent programs including peer educators, parents and the wider community also demonstrate effectiveness in improving sexual health outcomes. It takes a positive and holistic approach to sexual health education, and incorporates peer educators, parents, community workers and teachers. This study provides an introductory evaluation of the PASH Conference and identifies areas for increased effectiveness.

It is intended as an early piece of research to inform future evaluations and to provide introductory information for public health educators. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using deductive thematic analysis. Subjects included 2 teachers, 2 parents, 2 youth conference workers, 2 organisers, 2 presenters and 3 Peer Educators engaging Peers PEEPs.

Stakeholders perceived that young people were engaged to strengthen their sexual health and wellbeing due to many factors. These followed 3 themes: a safe and open learning environment, empowerment of young people and involvement of the support system and broader community. Multiple recommendations were identified across 2 themes: changes to conference format and planning, and enhancing stakeholder engagement.

The PASH Conference is a promising new youth development design promoting positive adolescent sexual health, which may provide a feasible model for public health educators to trial. Elements of the conference identified as engaging to youth align well with those in PYD research literature. This study provides an early piece of research to inform the design of future research on the PASH Conference including evaluation of behavioural outcomes.

It provides introductory information to inform PASH Conference development to further increase its effectiveness. The online version of this article Research suggests that adolescents require support in gaining skills and knowledge for healthy sexual development and behaviour [ 1 , 2 ].

Adolescence is also a period of increased risk of peer pressure and sexual coercion [ 3 ]. Adolescents require knowledge and skills to negotiate healthy, non-exploitative sexual relationships [ 4 ].

Sex education is a primary strategy for achieving improved adolescent sexual health outcomes [ 5 ]. School-based programs have traditionally been the main source [ 4 ].

Furthermore, students prefer community health or peer educators to teach sex education rather than school teachers [ 2 , 6 ].

Programs taking a holistic, positive approach to youth sexuality and development have demonstrated effectiveness. Run by health professionals, it includes peer education, family and local involvement, and has demonstrated improvements in sexual health outcomes [ 7 ].

Skills training programs also demonstrate effectiveness, e. Smart Girls : North Carolina, which provides positive life skills strategies, had increased personal and self-sexuality expectations compared to control groups [ 8 ]. Sexual health models incorporating parents frequently demonstrate effectiveness [ 9 — 12 ].

Programs incorporating peer education are popular. It is generally believed that a peer-led approach is appropriate since adolescents have a greater propensity to be influenced by and learn from their peers [ 13 ]. However, whilst peer education appears to be effective in increasing knowledge and changing attitudes, there is a lack of consensus on their impact on outcomes [ 14 — 18 ].

Many PYD programs have shown to strengthen adolescent sexual health [ 20 ]. PYD programs deemed effective have key characteristics. These include delivering activities in a positive, supportive environment, strengthening the school and family context, empowering youth, building skills and engaging youth in real activities and roles [ 19 , 20 ].

Health promotion, according to the Ottawa Charter, includes multiple elements such as providing a supportive environment, strengthening community actions, developing personal skills and reorienting health services to focus on the needs of the individual as a whole [ 22 ].

It also incorporates peer education, parental, teacher and community involvement. There is a paucity of Australian research evaluating adolescent sexual health programs that 1 include all relevant actors e. Hence, informative research is needed to address these gaps. This is important to identify new ways of promoting positive adolescent sexual health.

This study will provide a broad overview of the conference, with the intention that it will inform the design of future in-depth qualitative analyses, and quantitative studies assessing behavioural outcomes. Additionally, this study will also provide introductory information for public health practitioners, enabling the trial of an innovative Positive Youth Development model promoting sexual health. Therefore, our research aims are to:. The conference incorporates many tools with the aim of developing healthy behaviours and skills around wellbeing, sexual health, sexuality, body image and more.

Young people are involved in planning and engagement as are parents, professionals, teachers and community members. At least one teacher from each participating school attended, and this included Personal Development, Health and Physical Education teachers, year advisors, school counsellors and chaplains. In total 18 schools participated, with young people, teachers, youth workers and parents attending over the two days. Whilst the majority of interviews 10 were conducted in December , three were conducted in January and February due to limited availability of these interviewees.

There did not appear to be any difference in the quality of recollections or discussion for those interviewed at a later date. A semi-structured interview guide was developed to facilitate discussion around the overall aims. It was designed to gain a broad overview of perceptions on multiple facets of the conference rather than explore each area in depth, so as to inform the design of future, in-depth studies. The interview guide was pretested and pilot tested with author SWP who had attended the conference previously as a parent and was then refined prior to use with participants.

A variety of all key stakeholders were selected. The interviews were conducted either face-to-face or by phone. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Interview data was de-identified prior to analysis. It was later noted that parts of the interview guide were leading especially in the strengths section which may have resulted in more positive data. The co-chair of the PASH Conference recruited potential participants after consultation with the advisory group members.

A participant information form was sent to potential participants. Contact details of voluntary consenting participants were provided to the primary researcher who subsequently obtained informed consent and conducted all interviews. No people under the age of 16 were included in the study. Thematic analysis, as described by Braun and Clarke, was conducted [ 24 ]. Organisation of data analysis was managed in Microsoft Word. The first two interviews were reviewed in detail by two researchers and a draft coding hierarchy was developed individually before being refined through discussion.

Author BCSC then read all transcripts and further developed the coding framework. The framework was further refined through collaboration between researchers and tested for fit to the data through a first-cycle coding.

The researchers discussed and adjusted the codebook throughout the process. Themes were generated and thematic summaries developed. Thirteen interviews were conducted either face-to-face or by phone. There did not appear to be any difference in the quality of interview content across interview types.

The PEEPs had received training prior to the conference and became co-facilitators. The thematic analysis revealed a range of factors perceived by key stakeholders to have engaged young people attending the PASH Conference to strengthen their sexual health, wellbeing and related issues.

These followed three overarching themes safe and open learning environment, empowerment of young people, and involvement of the support system and broader community each containing sub-themes as outlined in Fig.

Participants identified a range of recommendations to improve the effectiveness and reach of the conference, following two themes improving conference format and planning, and enhancing stakeholder engagement each containing sub-themes as outlined in Part 2: Recommendations.

All interviewees identified that having an environment conducive to learning at the PASH conference was central to youth engagement. Most identified that presenters and facilitators were comfortable, open and at ease with their topic areas. This offered something beyond school-based sex education:.

A few interviewees identified that having professionals who were comfortable discussing sex and sexual health was a positive way of normalising discussions around sex-related topics. Others expressed the value in having presenters and workers who were light-hearted, friendly and approachable.

Some identified that key to creating an engaging environment was having contributors who were passionate about young people and their sexual health.

All interviewees identified that the positive approach taken towards sexual health was a great strength in engaging young people.

Whilst they are aspects of the PASH program, really the way the framework is presented is looking at their overall wellbeing and sexual health being a part of that. Many interviewees, including all PEEPs described the approach to sex as open and non-secretive, consequently facilitating discussion, and the opportunity to learn and form opinions based on a diverse range of material;.

Nothing is hidden in the dark. Many expressed that this interactive and speedy small group format was engaging and appropriate for young people.

Some interviewees identified that the format provided an opportunity for discussion, which was still safe for those not wishing to talk in a large group and preferring to engage through observation. Peer engagement was one of the strongest factors in creating a comfortable and relatable environment.

PEEPs were involved in facilitating engagement of young attendees. Almost all stakeholders discussed the positive impact that PEEPS had on learning, by increasing engagement through the creation of a more relaxed, comfortable and familiar environment and a more relatable peer-based role model. Otherwise you have a bunch of adults standing around telling a bunch of young people what to do and they hear that all the time.

Peer educators themselves noted that young people are more likely to talk about sex with people they can relate to;. A local Youth Theatre YT also held performances, covering a range of sexual health issues such as consent, negotiation, protective behaviour and sex and disability. A few interviewees found this to be the greatest strength of the conference. Parents noted that it enabled exploration of topics not discussed at home.

Parent, ID This extended beyond sex to include knowledge around relationships, mental health and wellbeing. Many, including teachers, perceived that having speakers who specialised across a variety of areas gave young people a deeper understanding of sexual health than that offered in the Australian School Curriculum. PEEPs found it valuable to have different information sources;. So you saw the legal side, the sexual therapy side, you saw where everyone was coming from not just like with a teacher, they just say…this is how everything is.

Where as when you get a lot of speakers specialising over lots of different areas you can almost put a picture together and understand a lot in depth. Some stakeholders noted that many families rely on schools to provide sex education to their adolescent. Parents identified the value in PASH addressing a range of topics that they understood would be difficult to cover during school sex education or in the home.

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