Sex discrimination in education sociology-Explaining Gender Inequality in Education – In School Factors – ReviseSociology

The study of gender and education encompasses gender differences in educational outcomes such as achievement, attainment, and experiences within the education system. This field also moves beyond the study of how gender influences educational outcomes and incorporates how these differences impact the labor market, family formation, and health outcomes. Early research in gender and education focused on whether differences in the educational outcomes of males and females were due to biological differences. Over time, research began to show that biological differences between genders tend to be smaller than those within gender. Thus, biological differences may play a relatively small role in educational outcomes while other factors like socialization and differences in expectations of boys and girls may play a larger role.

Sex discrimination in education sociology

Sex discrimination in education sociology

Related Articles about About Related Articles close popup. Back to Socology of Gender. Further, among some groups, girls surpass their male counterparts in eeducation and science course taking and achievement. For example, females tend to take Sex discrimination in education sociology advanced mathematical and scientific courses, thus leading them to be ill-equipped to pursue these careers in higher education. Voyerwas from the University of New Brunswick drew from 97 years of effect sizes and samples stemming from the year toand found that the magnitude of higher female performance was not affected by year of publication, thereby contradicted Pally twink gear claims of " boy crisis " in school achievement. In her quantitative study, Katherine Clarricoates conducted field observations and interviews with British primary sociolofy teachers from a range of schools located in both rural and urban and wealthy and less wealthy areas.

Asian nude lolilta. 3 thoughts on “Explaining Gender Inequality in Education – In School Factors”

At four or five, most children are firmly entrenched in culturally appropriate gender roles Kane A female, on the other hand, might be told she is too masculine looking to where she becomes more reserved and less motivated. Even today, our society is quick to outfit male infants in blue and girls in pink, even applying these colour-coded gender labels while a baby is in the womb. Sex and Sexuality Transgendered expressions and experiences are so diverse that it is difficult to identify their origin. Now, imagine that when you look at your body in the mirror, you feel disconnected. The division of traditional middle-class gender roles within the family—the husband as breadwinner and wife as homemaker—was functional for Vista wont find external hard drive because the roles were complementary. This study uncovered the general assumption that being female is associated with being somewhat unhealthy or not of sound mind. In her quantitative study, Katherine Clarricoates conducted field observations and interviews with British primary school teachers from a range of schools located in both rural and urban and wealthy and less wealthy areas. Structural functionalism provided one of the most important perspectives of sociological research in the 20th century and has been a major influence on research in the social sciences, including gender studies. The STeP Journal. It Sex discrimination in education sociology appear that Sweden is a model for the benefits of sexual freedom and frankness. However, differential socialization typically results in greater privileges afforded to Sex discrimination in education sociology.

Researchers documented a link between increasing rates of female education in developing countries and a subsequent decline in fertility rates e.

  • Just as gender is a social construction, so too is sexuality.
  • Researchers documented a link between increasing rates of female education in developing countries and a subsequent decline in fertility rates e.
  • When Harry was born, his parents, Steve and Barb, were delighted to add another boy to their family.
  • Sex differences in education are a type of sex discrimination in the education system affecting both men and women during and after their educational experiences.

The study of gender and education encompasses gender differences in educational outcomes such as achievement, attainment, and experiences within the education system. This field also moves beyond the study of how gender influences educational outcomes and incorporates how these differences impact the labor market, family formation, and health outcomes.

Early research in gender and education focused on whether differences in the educational outcomes of males and females were due to biological differences. Over time, research began to show that biological differences between genders tend to be smaller than those within gender.

Thus, biological differences may play a relatively small role in educational outcomes while other factors like socialization and differences in expectations of boys and girls may play a larger role.

Research on primary and secondary school students examined how peer, teacher, and family interactions are related to gender differences while research on higher education examined sex segregation by major and gender differences in choices to attend or complete college. Recently, research has shifted to examine the causes and consequences of the reversal of the gender gap in educational attainment. Women now outpace men in both college enrollment and completion in the majority of countries throughout the world.

However, stark gender differences are still registered in field of study and returns to educational credentials. This article includes classic works, research resources, empirical articles, and theoretical perspectives on gender and education. General overviews of gender and education provide broad information on trends and theories in this field.

Jacobs focuses on gender specific trends in higher education and early theories that sought to explain these differences, while Buchmann, et al. DiPrete and Buchmann provides a thorough review and analyses of historical trends in gender and education in the United States, while Charles reviews trends in gender equality in education throughout the world.

Grant and Behrman and King and Hill both examine education patterns by gender in developing countries. Today, like developed nations, these countries are experiencing a reversal of the gender education gap where females now have an advantage over males. Buchmann, C. DiPrete, and A. Gender inequalities in education. Annual Review of Sociology Buchmann, DiPrete, and McDaniel review the literature on gender inequalities in education.

This work examines trends and explanations for gender educational disparities in the United States. It then recommends productive directions for future research.

Charles, M. Charles reviews theories and evidence of international trends in gender equality. She offers diverse explanations for uneven and counter-intuitive sex-segregation patterns in education, the labor market, and the household. DiPrete, T. The rise of women: The growing gender gap in education and what it means for American schools.

New York: Russell Sage Foundation. DiPrete and Buchmann provide an overview of the broader societal changes that accompanied the change in gender trends in higher education. To explain these trends, they chart the performance of boys and girls over the educational life course with rigorous data; they consider the gender-specific impacts of factors such families, schools, peers, race, and class, and they offer clear recommendations for policies and research.

Grant, M. Gender gaps in educational attainment in less developed countries. Population and Development Review This article examines gender gaps in education throughout developing countries. Grant and Behrman examine thirty-eight countries in six developing regions around the world. Developing countries are becoming more like developed nations in terms of experiencing a shift toward a female advantage in education.

Jacobs, J. Gender inequality and higher education. Jacobs provides a thorough review of the literature related to gender and higher education that was published prior to Though outdated and not inclusive of current trends, this article provides insight into previous interpretations of theories and trends related to gender and education.

King, E. Hill, eds. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login. Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. For more information or to contact an Oxford Sales Representative click here. Not a member? Sign up for My OBO. Already a member? Publications Pages Publications Pages. Subscriber sign in. Forgot password?

Don't have an account? Sign in via your Institution. Sign in with your library card. Related Articles about About Related Articles close popup. Introduction The study of gender and education encompasses gender differences in educational outcomes such as achievement, attainment, and experiences within the education system.

General Overviews General overviews of gender and education provide broad information on trends and theories in this field. How to Subscribe Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. Jump to Other Articles:. Oxford University Press.

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Sociologists who work from this perspective also assert that educational institutions and school curricula are products of the dominant worldviews, beliefs, and values of the majority, which typically produces educational experiences that marginalize and disadvantage those in the minority in terms of race, class, gender, sexuality, and ability, among other things. They may begin to wonder why the norms of society do not reflect their sense of self, and thus begin to feel at odds with the world. Whereas woman or men of color such as Harriet Tubman as a spy for the Union, Harriet Beecher Stowe or Frederick Douglass, are downplayed from their part in the war. Gender identity is the extent to which one identifies as being either masculine or feminine Diamond Many thanks!

Sex discrimination in education sociology

Sex discrimination in education sociology

Sex discrimination in education sociology

Sex discrimination in education sociology

Sex discrimination in education sociology

Sex discrimination in education sociology. Introduction to Gender, Sex, and Sexuality

Heterosexuality — an idea that has only existed since the late s — became normalised in the early s. The alternative was to be legally punished. In many cases as I show below, homosexuality was permissible only for elite groups, or controlled for certain periods of time. In one way or another, all societies restrict the expression of sexuality, but the idea that heterosexuality is the mechanism by which this happens is false.

Sexuality is historically and culturally variable. Nationally representative surveys in Australia, the USA, and other nations show that human sexuality is diverse in its expression. Thus the sample over-inflated certain figures. More women overall report same sex attraction that they have acted upon. Men have slightly lower same-sex attraction in comparison to women.

Men are also less likely than women to act on this attraction. This is likely due to the additional stigma placed on gay men, which stems from the historical policing of male homosexuality.

More men report psychosexual disturbance — a sense of confusion about their same sex attraction. Again this may be possibly due to the cultural stigma about gay men which either causes heterosexual-identified men to experience anxiety about same-sex attraction, or perhaps they are reticent to act out on their same-sex desire. Male-to-male sex is less visible; it occupies a separate space in the sex industry, and gay relationships are largely de-sexualised in popular culture.

Amongst men who identify as heterosexual, Almost three times as many heterosexual women have experienced attraction towards women that they had not acted upon 6. Heterosexual people who are tertiary educated and working in white collar or professional jobs are most likely to have had a same-sex experience.

Higher education lends itself to greater tolerance for experimentation and access to diverse experiences not withstanding prevailing prejudice and homophobia. For Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, this means dealing with exclusion and racism as well as homophobia.

They have had sex before, but perhaps never; they may be in romantic relationships or in aromantic relationships with people of various genders, but not have sex. One commonality is that asexual people are often met with confusion or rejection when they come out to their families and friends.

People misunderstand how people could reject sex altogether. It is tempting to describe these as examples of either homosexuality or transgenderism, but I note that cultural and historical context matters. For example, in my analysis of Two Spirit practices amongst Navajo groups, I noted that social scientists have used this tradition as an example of transgender experience, but some Native American scholars dispute this position.

While some Native American activist groups are embracing the Two Spirit label, they do so with stronger respect for this as a spiritual position, rather than simply as a sexual identity. It is important to be careful when discussing the sexual and cultural practices of Others given the history of violence amongst colonised and minority groups.

For these groups, gender identity is also about spirituality and connection to culture and Country. Most of the documented examples of non-binary practices of sexuality involve high-status men. Undocumented examples may reveal other patterns, as I briefly show. Still, note that power, gender and class underscore these historical examples. It involves an adult male initiating a sexual relationship with an adolescent boy, but these relationships were not always constructed as romantic in the sense that Western cultures see this word today.

Many people know these relationships were found amongst the upper classes of Ancient Greeks and Romans; perhaps most famously are the Spartans. Some Ancient Celtic groups also engaged in this practice, as did Ancient Persians, and in some cases this might involve castrating young boys.

The Nanshoku were a class of Buddhist monks who were allowed to take young monks-in-training as lovers in a relationship that was considered serious and binding until the young boy grew up or left their training at the monastery. These practices were eventually eradicated as more women emigrated into the cities and because the government clamped down on male sex workers. They entered into a monogamous male relationship, though they were both free to continue having sex with women.

Love, trust, mutual appreciation and sacrifice underscored these bonds. This practice is meant to cement loyalty between men who fought alongside one another.

Young boys and girls live with their mothers separated from the men. At around age six to ten, boys are taken to live with the men. Ingesting semen is seen as a way to strengthen their masculinity and purify them from their feminine influences. Younger boys fellate older boys who are in their mid-to-late teens, and as they grow up, they become the fellated.

Once they reach marriage age and have children, sexual contact between men and boys is prohibited. Other than the Two Spirit tradition amongst some Native American cultures, there are few well-documented examples of societies allowing classes of women to engage in same-sex or bisexual behaviours. Yet these cases are generally not socially sanctioned, ritualised or institutionalised to the same extent as same-sex relationships that have been allowed for elite men.

This is an outcome of most societies being patriarchal, and conferring special rights and privileges to men over women. Adrienne Rich documented this historical pattern using the idea of compulsory heterosexuality , which has been forced upon women for much of history, in many though certainly not all cultures.

This shows how much culture shapes sexuality. The map below illustrates more cultures that similarly recognise gender roles beyond male-female and sexual orientations beyond heterosexuality click to enlarge. All of this Straight, Bi, Gay. Black, Yellow, White! Confusing right? I mean, how do I dignify how I identify? How is it I find my place in a race that graces the face of this Earth.

And what is my individuality worth? Who I am is someone so profound that words can never define. Zevallos, Z. Like Like. Hi Claire. Hi i think your blog is interesting and it helped in so many ways and im very grateful for that.

Hi Bryan. The B. The court acknowledged that the meaning of both sex and gender vary in different contexts. The case is currently under appeal. These legal issues reveal that even human experience that is assumed to be biological and personal such as our self-perception and behaviour is actually a socially defined variable by culture.

According to current scientific understanding, individuals are usually aware of their sexual orientation between middle childhood and early adolescence American Psychological Association They do not have to participate in sexual activity to be aware of these emotional, romantic, and physical attractions; people can be celibate and still recognize their sexual orientation. Homosexual women also referred to as lesbians , homosexual men also referred to as gays , and bisexuals of both genders may have very different experiences of discovering and accepting their sexual orientation.

Alfred Kinsey was among the first to conceptualize sexuality as a continuum rather than a strict dichotomy of gay or straight.

To classify this continuum of heterosexuality and homosexuality, Kinsey created a six-point rating scale that ranges from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual see Figure Sedgwick recognized that in North American culture, males are subject to a clear divide between the two sides of this continuum, whereas females enjoy more fluidity.

This can be illustrated by the way women in Canada can express homosocial feelings nonsexual regard for people of the same sex through hugging, handholding, and physical closeness. In contrast, Canadian males refrain from these expressions since they violate the heteronormative expectation. While women experience a flexible norming of variations of behaviour that spans the heterosocial-homosocial spectrum, male behaviour is subject to strong social sanction if it veers into homosocial territory because of societal homophobia Sedgwick There is no scientific consensus regarding the exact reasons why an individual holds a heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual orientation.

There has been research conducted to study the possible genetic, hormonal, developmental, social, and cultural influences on sexual orientation, but there has been no evidence that links sexual orientation to one factor APA Research, however, does present evidence showing that homosexuals and bisexuals are treated differently than heterosexuals in schools, the workplace, and the military. The Canadian Climate Survey reported that 59 percent of LGBT lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered high school students had been subject to verbal harassment at school compared to 7 percent of non-LGBT students, 25 percent had been subject to physical harassment compared to 8 percent of non-LGBT students, 31 percent had been subject to cyber-bullying via internet or text messaging compared to 8 percent of non-LGBT students, 73 percent felt unsafe at school compared to 20 percent of non-LGBT students, and 51 percent felt unaccepted at school compared to 19 percent of non-LGBT students Taylor and Peter Much of this discrimination is based on stereotypes, misinformation, and homophobia , an extreme or irrational aversion to homosexuals.

Major policies to prevent discrimination based on sexual orientation have not come into effect until the last few years. In the federal government legalized same-sex marriage. The Canadian Human Rights Act was amended in to explicitly prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation, including the unequal treatment of gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals. Organizations such as Egale Canada Equality for Gays And Lesbians Everywhere advocate for LGBT rights, establish gay pride organizations in Canadian communities, and promote gay-straight alliance support groups in schools.

As we grow, we learn how to behave from those around us. In this socialization process, children are introduced to certain roles that are typically linked to their biological sex. These roles are based on norms, or standards, created by society. In Canadian culture, masculine roles are usually associated with strength, aggression, and dominance, while feminine roles are usually associated with passivity, nurturing, and subordination. Role learning starts with socialization at birth.

Even today, our society is quick to outfit male infants in blue and girls in pink, even applying these colour-coded gender labels while a baby is in the womb. One way children learn gender roles is through play. Parents typically supply boys with trucks, toy guns, and superhero paraphernalia, which are active toys that promote motor skills, aggression, and solitary play.

The drive to adhere to masculine and feminine gender roles continues later in life. Men tend to outnumber women in professions such as law enforcement, the military, and politics. Women tend to outnumber men in care-related occupations such as child care, health care, and social work. Adherence to them demonstrates fulfillment of social expectations but not necessarily personal preference Diamond Canadian society allows for some level of flexibility when it comes to acting out gender roles.

To a certain extent, men can assume some feminine roles and women can assume some masculine roles without interfering with their gender identity. Individuals who identify with the role that is the opposite of their biological sex are called transgendered. Transgendered males, for example, have such a strong emotional and psychological connection to the feminine aspects of society that they identify their gender as female.

The parallel connection to masculinity exists for transgendered females. It is difficult to determine the prevalence of transgenderism in society. Statistics Canada states that they have neither the definitive number of people whose sexual orientation is lesbian, gay, or bisexual, nor the number of people who are transgendered Statistics Canada Transgendered individuals who wish to alter their bodies through medical interventions such as surgery and hormonal therapy—so that their physical being is better aligned with gender identity—are called transsexuals.

Not all transgendered individuals choose to alter their bodies: many will maintain their original anatomy but may present themselves to society as the opposite gender.

This is typically done by adopting the dress, hairstyle, mannerisms, or other characteristic typically assigned to the opposite gender. It is important to note that people who cross-dress, or wear clothing that is traditionally assigned to opposite gender, are not necessarily transgendered. There is no single, conclusive explanation for why people are transgendered. Transgendered expressions and experiences are so diverse that it is difficult to identify their origin.

Some hypotheses suggest biological factors such as genetics or prenatal hormone levels as well as social and cultural factors such as childhood and adulthood experiences. It is known, however, that transgendered and transsexual individuals experience discrimination based on their gender identity. People who identify as transgendered are twice as likely to experience assault or discrimination as non-transgendered individuals; they are also one and a half times more likely to experience intimidation National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs These organizations hope that by educating the public about gender identity and empowering transgendered and transsexual individuals, this violence will end.

What if you had to live as the opposite sex? If you are a man, imagine that you were forced to wear frilly dresses, dainty shoes, and makeup to special occasions, and you were expected to enjoy romantic comedies and glamour reality shows. If you are a woman, imagine that you were forced to wear shapeless clothing, put only minimal effort into your personal appearance, not show emotion, and watch countless hours of sporting events and sports-related commentary.

It would be pretty uncomfortable, right? Well, maybe not. Many people enjoy participating in activities that are typically associated with the opposite sex and would not mind if some of the cultural expectations for men and women were loosened. Now, imagine that when you look at your body in the mirror, you feel disconnected.

As you get older, you hate the way your body is changing, and, therefore, you hate yourself. These elements of disconnect and shame are important to understand when discussing transgendered individuals. Fortunately, sociological studies pave the way for a deeper and more empirically grounded understanding of transgendered experience. Aggressive behaviour, when it does not inflict significant harm, is often accepted from boys and men because it is congruent with the cultural script for masculinity.

Just as a playwright expects actors to adhere to a prescribed script, society expects women and men to behave according to the expectations of their respective gender role. Scripts are generally learned through a process known as socialization , which teaches people to behave according to social norms.

Children learn at a young age that there are distinct expectations for boys and girls. Cross-cultural studies reveal that children are aware of gender roles by age two or three.

At four or five, most children are firmly entrenched in culturally appropriate gender roles Kane Children acquire these roles through socialization, a process in which people learn to behave in a particular way as dictated by societal values, beliefs, and attitudes. For example, society often views riding a motorcycle as a masculine activity and, therefore, considers it to be part of the male gender role.

Attitudes such as this are typically based on stereotypes, oversimplified notions about members of a group. Gender stereotyping involves overgeneralizing about the attitudes, traits, or behaviour patterns of women or men. For example, women may be thought of as too timid or weak to ride a motorcycle. Gender stereotypes form the basis of sexism. Sexism refers to prejudiced beliefs that value one sex over another. Sexism varies in its level of severity. In parts of the world where women are strongly undervalued, young girls may not be given the same access to nutrition, health care, and education as boys.

While illegal in Canada when practised as discrimination, unequal treatment of women continues to pervade social life. It should be noted that discrimination based on sex occurs at both the micro- and macro-levels. Many sociologists focus on discrimination that is built into the social structure; this type of discrimination is known as institutional discrimination Pincus Gender socialization occurs through four major agents of socialization: family, education, peer groups, and mass media.

Each agent reinforces gender roles by creating and maintaining normative expectations for gender-specific behaviour. Exposure also occurs through secondary agents such as religion and the workplace. Repeated exposure to these agents over time leads men and women into a false sense that they are acting naturally rather than following a socially constructed role.

Family is the first agent of socialization. There is considerable evidence that parents socialize sons and daughters differently. Generally speaking, girls are given more latitude to step outside of their prescribed gender role Coltrane and Adams ; Kimmel ; Raffaelli and Ontai However, differential socialization typically results in greater privileges afforded to boys.

They may be given fewer restrictions on appropriate clothing, dating habits, or curfew. Sons are also often free from performing domestic duties such as cleaning or cooking and other household tasks that are considered feminine. Daughters are limited by their expectation to be passive, nurturing, and generally obedient, and to assume many of the domestic responsibilities. Even when parents set gender equality as a goal, there may be underlying indications of inequality.

For example, when dividing up household chores, boys may be asked to take out the garbage or perform other tasks that require strength or toughness, while girls may be asked to fold laundry or perform duties that require neatness and care.

It has been found that fathers are firmer in their expectations for gender conformity than are mothers, and their expectations are stronger for sons than they are for daughters Kimmel This is true in many types of activities, including preference of toys, play styles, discipline, chores, and personal achievements.

It should be noted that parental socialization and normative expectations vary along lines of social class, race, and ethnicity.

Research in the United States has shown that African American families, for instance, are more likely than Caucasians to model an egalitarian role structure for their children Staples and Boulin Johnson The reinforcement of gender roles and stereotypes continues once a child reaches school age.

Until very recently, schools were rather explicit in their efforts to stratify boys and girls. The first step toward stratification was segregation. Girls were encouraged to take home economics or humanities courses and boys to take shop, math, and science courses. Studies suggest that gender socialization still occurs in schools today, perhaps in less obvious forms Lips Teachers may not even realize that they are acting in ways that reproduce gender-differentiated behaviour patterns.

Yet, any time they ask students to arrange their seats or line up according to gender, teachers are asserting that boys and girls should be treated differently Thorne Even in levels as low as kindergarten, schools subtly convey messages to girls indicating that they are less intelligent or less important than boys. For example, in a study involving teacher responses to male and female students, data indicated that teachers praised male students far more than their female counterparts. Additionally, teachers interrupted girls more and gave boys more opportunities to expand on their ideas Sadker and Sadker Further, in social as well as academic situations, teachers have traditionally positioned boys and girls oppositionally—reinforcing a sense of competition rather than collaboration Thorne Boys are also permitted a greater degree of freedom regarding rule-breaking or minor acts of deviance, whereas girls are expected to follow rules carefully and to adopt an obedient posture Ready Mimicking the actions of significant others is the first step in the development of a separate sense of self Mead Like adults, children become agents who actively facilitate and apply normative gender expectations to those around them.

When children do not conform to the appropriate gender role, they may face negative sanctions such as being criticized or marginalized by their peers. Though many of these sanctions are informal, they can be quite severe. Boys, especially, are subject to intense ridicule for gender nonconformity Coltrane and Adams ; Kimmel Mass media serves as another significant agent of gender socialization. In television and movies, women tend to have less significant roles and are often portrayed as wives or mothers.

When women are given a lead role, they are often one of two extremes: a wholesome, saint-like figure or a malevolent, hypersexual figure Etaugh and Bridges Research indicates that of the top-grossing G-rated movies released between and , three out of four characters were male. Out of those movies, only seven were near being gender balanced, with a character ratio of less than 1. Television commercials and other forms of advertising also reinforce inequality and gender-based stereotypes.

Women are almost exclusively present in ads promoting cooking, cleaning, or child care—related products Davis Think about the last time you saw a man star in a dishwasher or laundry detergent commercial. In general, women are underrepresented in roles that involve leadership, intelligence, or a balanced psyche. Of particular concern is the depiction of women in ways that are dehumanizing, especially in music videos. Even in mainstream advertising, however, themes intermingling violence and sexuality are quite common Kilbourne Stratification refers to a system in which groups of people experience unequal access to basic, yet highly valuable, social resources.

Canada is characterized by gender stratification as well as stratification of race, income, occupation, and the like. Evidence of gender stratification is especially keen within the economic realm. However, as one report noted, if the gender gap in wages continues to close at the same glacial rate, women will not earn the same as men until the year McInturff Additionally, women who are in the paid labour force still do the majority of the unpaid work at home.

In women spent an average 50 hours a week looking after children compared to This double duty keeps working women in a subordinate role in the family structure Hochschild and Machung Gender stratification through the division of labour is not exclusively North American. When a pattern appears in all societies, it is called a cultural universal. While the phenomenon of assigning work by gender is universal, its specifics are not. The same task is not assigned to either men or women worldwide.

There is a long history of gender stratification in Canada. When looking to the past, it would appear that society has made great strides in terms of abolishing some of the most blatant forms of gender inequality see timeline below but underlying effects of male dominance still permeate many aspects of society. Sociological theories serve to guide the research process and offer a means for interpreting research data and explaining social phenomena.

For example, a sociologist interested in gender stratification in education may study why middle-school girls are more likely than their male counterparts to fall behind grade-level expectations in math and science. Structural functionalism provided one of the most important perspectives of sociological research in the 20th century and has been a major influence on research in the social sciences, including gender studies.

Viewing the family as the most integral component of society, assumptions about gender roles within marriage assume a prominent place in this perspective.

Functionalists argue that gender roles were established well before the preindustrial era when men typically took care of responsibilities outside of the home, such as hunting, and women typically took care of the domestic responsibilities in or around the home. These roles were considered functional because women were often limited by the physical restraints of pregnancy and nursing and unable to leave the home for long periods of time.

Once established, these roles were passed on to subsequent generations since they served as an effective means of keeping the family system functioning properly. When changes occurred in the social and economic climate of Canada during World War II, changes in the family structure also occurred.

Many women had to assume the role of breadwinner or modern hunter and gatherer alongside their domestic role in order to stabilize a rapidly changing society.

When the men returned from war and wanted to reclaim their jobs, society fell into a state of imbalance, as many women did not want to forfeit their wage-earning positions Hawke Talcott Parsons argued that the contradiction between occupational roles and kinship roles of men and women in North America created tension or strain on individuals as they tried to adapt to the conflicting norms or requirements.

The division of traditional middle-class gender roles within the family—the husband as breadwinner and wife as homemaker—was functional for him because the roles were complementary.

They enabled a clear division of labour between spouses, which ensured that the ongoing functional needs of the family were being met. Within the North American kinship system, wives and husbands roles were equally valued according to Parsons. As a result, Parson theorized that these tensions would lead women to become expressive specialists in order to claim prestige e.

According to critical sociology, society is structured by relations of power and domination among social groups e. When sociologists examine gender from this perspective, we can view men as the dominant group and women as the subordinate group. According to critical sociology, social problems and contradictions are created when dominant groups exploit or oppress subordinate groups.

It is difficult for women to rise above men, as dominant group members create the rules for success and opportunity in society Farrington and Chertok Friedrich Engels, a German sociologist, studied family structure and gender roles. Engels suggested that the same owner-worker relationship seen in the labour force is also seen in the household, with women assuming the role of the proletariat.

Women are therefore doubly exploited in capitalist society, both when they work outside the home and when they work within the home. Contemporary critical sociologists suggest that when women become wage earners, they can gain power in the family structure and create more democratic arrangements in the home, although they may still carry the majority of the domestic burden, as noted earlier Risman and Johnson-Sumerford Feminist theory is a type of critical sociology that examines inequalities in gender-related issues.

It uses the critical approach to examine the maintenance of gender roles and inequalities. Radical feminism, in particular, considers the role of the family in perpetuating male dominance. Additionally, women often perceive a disconnect between their personal experiences and the way the world is represented by society as a whole.

Dorothy Smith referred to this phenomenon as bifurcated consciousness Smith Patriarchal perspectives and arrangements, widespread and taken for granted, are built into the relations of ruling. As a result, not only do women find it difficult to find their experiences acknowledged in the wider patriarchal culture, their viewpoints also tend to be silenced or marginalized to the point of being discredited or considered invalid. The men, however, do not experience the sense of bifurcated consciousness under this social structure that modern Canadian females encounter Sanday Symbolic interactionism aims to understand human behaviour by analyzing the critical role of symbols in human interaction.

This is certainly relevant to the discussion of masculinity and femininity. Imagine that you walk into a bank, hoping to get a small loan for school, a home, or a small business venture. If you meet with a male loan officer, you may state your case logically by listing all of the hard numbers that make you a qualified applicant as a means of appealing to the analytical characteristics associated with masculinity.

If you meet with a female loan officer, you may make an emotional appeal by stating your good intentions as a means of appealing to the caring characteristics associated with femininity. Because the meanings attached to symbols are socially created and not natural, and fluid, not static, we act and react to symbols based on the current assigned meaning.

Furthermore, the word gay as it refers to a homosexual carried a somewhat negative and unfavourable meaning 50 years ago, but has since gained more neutral and even positive connotations. These shifts in symbolic meaning apply to family structure as well. In , when only Today, when a majority of women with preschool-aged children are part of the paid workforce Sociologist Charles H.

When people perform tasks or possess characteristics based on the gender role assigned to them, they are said to be doing gender. In , Broverman and Broverman conducted a groundbreaking study on the traits mental health workers ascribed to males and females.

When asked to name the characteristics of a female, the list featured words such as unaggressive, gentle, emotional, tactful, less logical, not ambitious, dependent, passive, and neat. The list of male characteristics featured words such as aggressive, rough, unemotional, blunt, logical, direct, active, and sloppy Seem and Clark Later, when asked to describe the characteristics of a healthy person not gender specific , the list was nearly identical to that of a male.

This study uncovered the general assumption that being female is associated with being somewhat unhealthy or not of sound mind. This concept seems extremely dated, but in , Seem and Clark replicated the study and found similar results.

Again, the characteristics associated with a healthy male were very similar to that of a healthy genderless adult. The list of characteristics associated with being female broadened somewhat but did not show significant change from the original study Seem and Clark This interpretation of feminine characteristic may help us one day better understand gender disparities in certain illnesses, such as why one in eight women can be expected to develop clinical depression in her lifetime National Institute of Mental Health In the area of sexuality, sociologists focus their attention on sexual attitudes and practices, not on physiology or anatomy.

Studying sexual attitudes and practices is a particularly interesting field of sociology because sexual behaviour is a cultural universal. Throughout time and place, the vast majority of human beings have participated in sexual relationships Broude Each society, however, interprets sexuality and sexual activity in different ways.

Many societies around the world have different attitudes about premarital sex, the age of sexual consent, homosexuality, masturbation, and other sexual behaviours that are not consistent with universally cultural norms Widmer, Treas, and Newcomb At the same time, sociologists have learned that certain norms like disapproval of incest are shared among most societies.

Likewise, societies generally have norms that reinforce their accepted social system of sexuality. Societies that value monogamy, for example, would likely oppose extramarital sex. Individuals are socialized to sexual attitudes by their family, education system, peers, media, and religion. Historically, religion has been the greatest influence on sexual behaviour in most societies, but in more recent years, peers and the media have emerged as two of the strongest influences, particularly with North American teens Potard, Courtois, and Rusch Let us take a closer look at sexual attitudes in Canada and around the world.

Cross-national research on sexual attitudes in industrialized nations reveals that normative standards differ across the world. For example, several studies have shown that Scandinavian students are more tolerant of premarital sex than are North American students Grose A study of 37 countries reported that non-Western societies—like China, Iran, and India—valued chastity highly in a potential mate, while western European countries—such as France, the Netherlands, and Sweden—placed little value on prior sexual experiences Buss Even among Western cultures, attitudes can differ.

For example, according to a 33,person survey across 24 countries, 89 percent of Swedes responded that there is nothing wrong with premarital sex, while only 42 percent of Irish responded this way. From the same study, 93 percent of Filipinos responded that sex before age 16 is always wrong or almost always wrong, while only 75 percent of Russians responded this way Widmer, Treas, and Newcomb Sexual attitudes can also vary within a country.

For instance, 45 percent of Spaniards responded that homosexuality is always wrong, while 42 percent responded that it is never wrong; only 13 percent responded somewhere in the middle Widmer, Treas, and Newcomb Of industrialized nations, Sweden is thought to be the most liberal when it comes to attitudes about sex, including sexual practices and sexual openness.

The country has very few regulations on sexual images in the media, and sex education, which starts around age six, is a compulsory part of Swedish school curricula. It would appear that Sweden is a model for the benefits of sexual freedom and frankness. However, implementing Swedish ideals and policies regarding sexuality in other, more politically conservative, nations would likely be met with resistance. In the international survey noted above, 12 percent of Canadians stated that premarital sex is always wrong, compared to 29 percent of Americans.

The average among the 24 countries surveyed on this question was 17 percent. Fifty-five percent of Canadians compared to 71 percent of Americans condemned sex before the age of 16, 68 percent compared to 80 percent condemned extramarital sex, and 39 percent compared to 70 condemned homosexuality Widmer, Treas, and Newcomb North American culture is particularly restrictive in its attitudes about sex when it comes to women and sexuality.

In fact, there is a popular notion that men think about sex every seven seconds. Research, however, suggests that men think about sex an average of 19 times per day, compared to 10 times per day for women Fisher, Moore, and Pittenger Belief that men have—or have the right to—more sexual urges than women creates a double standard. Ira Reiss, a pioneer researcher in the field of sexual studies, defined the double standard as prohibiting premarital sexual intercourse for women but allowing it for men Reiss This standard has evolved into allowing women to engage in premarital sex only within committed love relationships, but allowing men to engage in sexual relationships with as many partners as they wish without condition Milhausen and Herold Due to this double standard, a woman is likely to have fewer sexual partners in her life time than a man.

According to a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC survey, the average year-old woman has had three opposite-sex sexual partners while the average year-old man has had twice as many Centers for Disease Control In a study of 1, Canadians over the age of 18, men had had an average of Sociologists representing all three major theoretical perspectives study the role that sexuality plays in social life today.

Scholars recognize that sexuality continues to be an important factor in social hierarchies and relations of power and that the manner in which sexuality is constructed has a significant effect on perceptions, interactions, health, and outcomes. When it comes to sexuality, functionalists stress the importance of regulating sexual behaviour to ensure marital cohesion and family stability. Since functionalists identify the family unit as the most integral component in society, they maintain a strict focus on it at all times and argue in favour of social arrangements that promote and ensure family preservation.

Functionalists such as Talcott Parsons et al. Social norms surrounding family life have, traditionally, encouraged sexual activity within the family unit marriage and have discouraged activity outside of it premarital and extramarital sex.

From a functionalist point of view, the purpose of encouraging sexual activity in the confines of marriage is to intensify the bond between spouses and to ensure that procreation occurs within a stable, legally recognized relationship. This structure gives offspring the best possible chance for appropriate socialization and the provision of basic resources. From a functionalist standpoint, homosexuality cannot be promoted on a large-scale as an acceptable substitute for heterosexuality.

If this occurred, procreation would eventually cease. Thus, homosexuality, if occurring predominantly within the population, is dysfunctional to society. This criticism does not take into account the increasing legal acceptance of same-sex marriage, or the rise in gay and lesbian couples who choose to bear and raise children through a variety of available resources. It is of course not the case that homosexuals are unable to marry or procreate with members of the opposite sex as this has occurred throughout history.

From a critical perspective, sexuality is another area in which power differentials are present and where dominant groups actively work to promote their worldview as well as their economic interests.

Why do girls do better than boys in schools in Britain? This post aims to explain the gender gap in education by focusing on internal factors such as teacher labeling, laddish subcultures and the feminisation of teaching.

Teacher Labeling. Swann and Graddol found that teachers tend to see boys as unruly and disruptive and are more likely to spend time telling them off than helping them with schoolwork. Teachers have lower expectations of boys and so are less inclined to push them hard to achieve high standards.

Because of their disruptive behaviour they are more likely to be excluded. Four out of five permanent exclusions are boys. With Ladette culture this may be changing Jackson, John Abraham asked teachers to describe a typical boy and a typical girl — The typical boy was described as not particularly bright, likes a laugh and always attention seeking, often by messing around.

The typical girl is bright, well —behaved and hard working, being quiet and timid. As a result he found that boys were told off much more easily than girls. Working class boys especially tend to form anti-school subcultures. Paul Willis found this with his research with the lads, Tony Sewell argues that there is a black —anti school masculinity and Diane Reay et al found that boys felt they had little control over their educational learning and so seek power through other negative strategies.

Unlike the anti-social subculture discovered by Paul Willis, some researchers such as Abrahams and Mirza have found evidence of pro-school female subcultures who actively encourage each other to study.

Carolyn Jackson — Found that laddish behaviour had important benefits — it made students seam cool and thus popular. She also argued that it was a response to the fear of failure — it made students seam unbothered about failing, so if they did FAIL they would not look bad. Furthermore, if lads and ladettes did well, they would be labelled as a genius — doing well with apparently no effort.

Frosh and Phoenix — Mainly focus group interviews but some individual interviews Sample of boys and 27girls in 12 schools Young Masculinities Found that few boys were able to be both popular and academically successful Conscientious boys who tried hard at school were often labelled as feminine or gay. The Feminisation of teaching. There are more female than male teachers, especially in primary school. In line with women increasingly going into more professional careers, secondary schooling has also seen a rise in female teachers.

This means that girls increasingly have positive role models while boys may fail to identify with female teachers.

This is the idea that there are not enough male teachers working in primary schools and that, as a result, the curriculum, teaching styles and means of assessment, are more appropriate to the learning styles of girls. The introduction of coursework. Coursework was introduced with the Education Act and this is precisely when girls started to outperform boys in education.

Coursework may benefit girls in education because they are better organised and more likely to do work outside of lessons.

Michael Barber showed that boys overestimate their ability, and girls underestimate theirs. Francis research in 3 London schools found that some boys thought it would be easy to do well in exams without having to put much effort in. When they fail they tend to blame the teacher or their own lack of effort, not ability and feel undervalued. Limitations of in school factors in explaining differences in educational achievement.

Research by Skelton et al found that the Feminisation of teaching does not have a negative impact on educational performance of boys. Sixty-five per cent of children rejected the idea that the gender of the teacher mattered, with no major differences between girls and boys.

The majority of pupils also believed that the behaviour of male and female teachers in the classroom was generally very similar in terms of fairness, encouragement and discipline.

If we look in those areas, we cannot help but see how the numbers of Male problems diminish greatly as we go up the socioeconomic ladder. Even in higher socioeconomic areas, those Males are also falling behind their female peers. As we go down the socioeconomic ladder, the numbers increase greatly. It is amazing to me that such differential treatment has not been looked at by the researchers.

I imagine there are two reasons: 1. The belief in genetics has blinded researchers to the great social, environmental causes of learning, motivation, and academics. The present view of average stress sees stress only as occurring in some present situation, event, or work.

To understand this we must redefine average stress as many layers of mental work that take up real mental energy. Picture an upright rectangle showing our full mental energy. All of those layers are being mentally dealt with as layers of mental work. Stop about half way.

The space leftover shows our leftover ability to think and learn. The Figure showing this will go to all on request. The problem is more complex than school curriculum or boy chemistry. We need to stop looking at where boys are in life, character, and behavior and begin seeing how boys are treated from infancy very differently from us as girls.

We need to see how the more aggressive treatment they are given from infancy by parents, teachers, and peers is creating more learning problems and less than correct behavior or care for authority and school. This differential treatment creates very real differences in learning by individual and by group.

The problem involves two entirely different treatments of Males and Females as early as one year of age and increases in differential treatment. This is creating the growing Male Crisis. The belief Males should be strong allows more aggressive treatment of Males as early as one year, designed to create more layers of agitation, fear, and tension, so they will be prepared to fight, defend, and be tough.

It is this more aggressive, less supportive treatment that creates the toughness or maintained, higher average layers of — anger, fear, anxiety, preparation for defense, etc. This remains in the mind as higher average stress that take away real mental energy needed for academics.

This increases over time and continued by society from parents, yes teachers, and others in society. This also creates more activity due to need for stress relief from their higher average stress.

It creates more defensiveness and wariness of others further limiting social and emotional growth. The higher average stress creates higher muscle tension creating more pressure on the pencil and tighter grip that hurts writing and motivation to write hurting the writing and creating early fatigue.

It creates much lag in development due to lack of care, creating a learned sense of helplessness in school. This differential treatment continues through adulthood, almost fixing many Males onto roads of failure and escape into more short-term areas of enjoyment. Also society gives Males love and honor essential needs for self-worth only on condition of some achievement or status. This was designed to keep Male esteem and feelings of self-worth low to keep them striving and even give their lives in time of war for small measures of love and honor.

Males not achieving in school or other are given more ridicule and discipline to make them try harder. Support is not an option for fear of coddling. Many Males thus falling behind in academics then turn their attention toward video games, and sports to receive small measures of love and honor not received in the classroom.

The belief boys should be strong and the false belief in genetics creates a mental denial of any connection with differential treatment and the lower academics, lower esteem, and other problems, removing all good sense when it comes to raising boys today. I feel there is an almost emotional cannibalism allowed upon Males by society, even young Males who appear weak, all to make them tough. Note, it is not just about feelings and more openness that is needed as it is more support and care in general from infancy.

Remember it is the aggressive treatment that is increased for any sign of weakness and much wariness they feel for others, especially adults parents and teachers who feel it necessary — and more freely allowed to use more aggressive treatment for any sign of weakness or vulnerability. Boys are deprived in these areas due to much less care, verbal interaction, and more aggressive treatment. This hurts boys in many ways when it comes to reading.

As for writing, we also need much social vocabulary to understand and put words into print. We also need lower average stress to create more ease of writing. The substantial higher average stress in boys creates significant higher muscle tension, which then creates a much tighter grip and much more pressure on their pencil or pen.

This creates poor handwriting and early fatigue. This later kills off motivation to write, hence more two and three word sentences from boys and very little writing. I feel the shows of masculinity and misbehavior are pretty much copouts to both show separation from failure in school and to gleam small measures of love and honor from peers. The defensiveness from authority is really pretty straight forward, especially in lower socioeconomic areas where strength, power, and status hold very real currency in those areas.

For those students it is not just misbehavior but a real tug of war or fight for minimum feelings of self-worth from a continual fight they feel outside the classroom as well as in. The suicide epidemic is the result of Males being deprived sufficiently from those essential feelings of self-worth of less love and honor simply for being boys or men.

The training they are given from an early age is preventing many of them from competing in the information age and thus losing the means to secure legally — income, status, and power to earn in some way, love and honor from society. This is also creating many continual interactions with even more aggressive, less respectful treatment, which only increases their psychological suffering, which further wears down their feelings of self-worth or desire to live.

This creates over time, psychological suffering that wears down their remaining feelings of self-worth to the point of suicide. There is no net provided for Male children and adults, all designed to make them tougher, even to the point of suicide. All persons given such treatment may escape in many ways given more harsh, less supportive treatment, and less respect over time. I feel we are seeing only Male suicides and not seeing all of the many harmful escapes many persons are using instead of suicide in the form of much drug and alcohol abuse, now mainly by Male children and adults.

As girls, we are treated much better and so enjoy more hope and care from society. We enjoy much more continuous care and support from infancy through adulthood and receive love and honor simply for being girls. This creates all of the good things: lower average stress for more ease of learning. We do enjoy much freedom of expression from much protection that makes us look less stable at times.

We are reaping a bonanza in the information age. The lower the socioeconomic bracket and time in that bracket the more amplified the differential treatment from a young age and increased and more differentiated over time.

Now with girls and women taking over many areas of society, we are enjoying even more lavishing of love and honor, while boys and men are still treated to be tough are failing more and so are being given even more ridicule and abuse by society and yes, also by girls and women using our protected freeness of expression and now, even from false feelings of superiority.

My learning theory and article on the Male Crisis will go to all on request or can be read from my home site. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam.

Learn how your comment data is processed. Skip to content Why do girls do better than boys in schools in Britain? Teacher Labeling Swann and Graddol found that teachers tend to see boys as unruly and disruptive and are more likely to spend time telling them off than helping them with schoolwork.

Sex discrimination in education sociology